Le progrès n'a aujourd'hui plus d'attrait. Il ne fait plus consensus pour les " progressistes ". Le doute légitime vis-à-vis du progrès technique et économique a renforcé, à son insu, le discours hégémonique sur l'absence d'alternatives et sur la fin de l'histoire. Afin de conjurer cette malédiction, Peter Wagner a conduit une enquête à conceptuelle, historique et sociologique qui vise à redéfinir, pour celles et ceux qui souffrent du présent, les contours d'un futur désirable. Si l'idée de progrès a guidé l'action sociale et politique moderne depuis les Lumières, elle s'est aujourd'hui considérablement affaiblie. Y compris parmi les insatisfaits de la réalité actuelle, le mot même de progrès a perdu son sens. Progrès de quoi ? Progrès pour qui ? Progrès vers quoi ? Qui peut encore répondre à ces questions ? Que le progrès n'ait plus d'attrait ni de contours, qu'il ne fasse plus consensus pour les " progressistes " est un facteur central de la fermeture actuelle des possibles. Le doute légitime vis-à-vis du progrès, en particulier technique et économique, a renforcé à son insu le discours hégémonique sur l'absence d'alternatives et sur la fin de l'histoire. Afin de conjurer cette malédiction durable, Peter Wagner a conduit une enquête à la fois conceptuelle, historique et sociologique, qui vise à redéfinir ce que pourrait être un futur désirable pour celles et ceux qui souffrent du présent.
Selon Wagner, le progrès est la fois nécessaire et possible, et doit être réactivé à partir de deux matrices que sont la critique et l'imagination. Mais, pour penser le progrès de demain, il faut aussi se défaire de ses conceptions eurocentrées, qui ont dominé l'imaginaire des modernes. L'ouvrage est donc attentif à la multiplicité des définitions du progrès, au Nord comme au Sud, en Amérique latine et en Afrique du Sud, comme dans les anciens pays communistes et en Asie. Au fil de ce parcours, il offre un commentaire raisonné de la plupart des théories politiques qui se sont développées à l'échelle globale au cours des dernières décennies. L'émergence d'une capacité à l'autodétermination collective apparaît, au terme de l'enquête, comme la condition, mais aussi l'horizon, de tous les autres progrès possibles.
The idea of progress guided human expectations and actions for over two centuries. From the Enlightenment onwards, it was widely believed that the condition of humankind could be radically improved. History had embarked on an unstoppable forward trajectory, realizing the promise of freedom and reason. The scientific revolution, the industrial revolution, and the French Revolution, in some views also the socialist revolution, were milestones on this march of progress.
But since the late twentieth century the idea of progress has largely disappeared from public debate. Sometimes it has been explicitly declared dead. The wide horizon of future possibilities has closed. The best we can hope for, some say, is to avoid regress.
What happened to progress? Why did we stop believing in it, if indeed we did? This book offers answers to these questions. It reviews both the conceptual history of progress and the social and political experiences with progress over the past two centuries, and it comes to a surprising conclusion: The idea of progress was misconceived from its beginnings, and the failure of progress in practice was a result of this flawed conception. The experiences of the past half century, in turn, has allowed us to rethink progress in a more adequate way. Rather than the end of progress, they may herald the beginning of a new, reconstructed idea of progress.
We are all modern today. But modernity today is not what it used to be. Over the past few decades, modernity has been radically changed by globalization, individualization, new inequalities, and fundamentalism. A novel way of analysing contemporary societies is needed. This book proposes such an analysis. Every society seeks answers to certain basic questions: how to order life in common; how to satisfy human needs; how to establish knowledge. Sociology long assumed that the answers had been found once and for all: a liberal-democratic state, a market economy, and free scientific institutions. This trinity used to be called `modern society'. By contrast, this book is based on the idea that, under conditions of modernity, there are no stable and certain answers to these questions. There is a plurality of possible answers, every proposed answer can be criticized and contested, and every society needs to find its answer on its own. This new sociology of modernity proposes two key instruments through which to understand the answers given to those questions: the experiences human beings have of their own modernity and the interpretations they give to those experiences. It reviews the history of `Western' modernity in this light and then focuses on the specific answers that were and are being developed in Europe.
We live in a modern age, but what does `modern' mean and how can a reflection on `modernity' help us to understand the world today? These are the questions that Peter Wagner sets out to answer in this concise and accessible book.
Wagner begins by returning to the question of modernity's Western origins and its claims to open up a new and better era in the history of humanity. Modernity's claims and expectations have become more prevalent and widely shared, but in the course of their realization and diffusion they have also been radically transformed. In an acute and engaging analysis, Wagner examines the following key issues among others:
- Modernity was based on the hope for freedom and reason, but it created the institutions of contemporary capitalism and democracy. How does the freedom of the citizen relate to the freedom of the buyer and seller today? And what does disaffection with capitalism and democracy entail for the sustainability of modernity?
- Rather than a single model of modernity, there is now a plurality of forms of modern socio-political organisation. What does this entail for our idea of progress and our hope that the future world can be better than the present one?
- All nuance and broadening notwithstanding, our concept of modernity is in some way inextricably tied to the history of Europe and the West. How can we compare different forms of modernity in a 'symmetric', non-biased or non-Eurocentric way? How can we develop a world-sociology of modernity?
Divided into two parts, this book examines the train of social theory from the 19th century, through to the 'organization of modernity', in relation to ideas of social planning, and as contributors to the 'rationalistic revolution' of the 'golden age' of capitalism in the 1950s and 60s. Part two examines key concepts in the social sciences. It begins with some of the broadest concepts used by social scientists: choice, decision, action and institution and moves on to examine the 'collectivist alternative': the concepts of society, culture and polity, which are often dismissed as untenable by postmodernists today. This is a major contribution to contemporary social theory and provides a host of essential insights into the task of social science today.
This book argues that sociology has lost its ability to provide critical diagnoses of the present human condition because sociology has stopped considering the philosophical requirements of social enquiry. The book attempts to restore that ability by retrieving some of the key questions that sociologists tend to gloss over, inescapability and attainability. The book identifies five key questions in which issues of inescapability and attainability emerge. These are the questions of the certainty of our knowledge, the viability of our politics, the continuity of our selves, the accessibility of the past, and the transparency of the future. The book demonstrates how these questions are addressed in different forms and by different intellectual means during the past 200 years and shows how they persist today.
Forced by the death of her parents to seek her fortune in London, Fanny Hill is duped into prostitution by an old procuress. In Mrs Brown's bawdy-house the naïve young woman begins her sexual initiation - progressing from innocence to curiosity and desire - and soon embarks on her own path in pursuit of pleasure, until she at last finds true love. John Cleland's story of Fanny's rise to respectability was denounced after its publication by the then Bishop of London as 'an open insult upon Religion and good manners', while James Boswell called it 'a most licentious and inflaming book'. But beside its highly entertaining and boisterous depictions of a startling variety of sexual acts, Fanny Hill stands as one of the great works of eighteenth-century fiction for its unique combination of parody, erotica and philosophy of sensuality.
The Greek Polis and the Invention of Democracy presents a series of essays that trace the Greeks' path to democracy and examine the connection between the Greek polis as a citizen state and democracy as well as the interaction between democracy and various forms of cultural expression from a comparative historical perspective and with special attention to the place of Greek democracy in political thought and debates about democracy throughout the centuries. Presents an original combination of a close synchronic and long diachronic examination of the Greek polis - city-states that gave rise to the first democratic system of government Offers a detailed study of the close interactionbetween democracy, society, and the arts in ancient Greece Places the invention of democracy in fifth-century bce Athens both in its broad social and cultural context and in the context of the re-emergence of democracy in the modern world Reveals the role Greek democracy played in the political and intellectual traditions that shaped modern democracy, and in the debates about democracy in modern social, political, and philosophical thought Written collaboratively by an international team of leading scholars in classics, ancient history, sociology, and political science
The Multiple Inert Gas Elimination Technique (MIGET) is a complex methodology involving specialized gas chromatography and sophisticated mathematics developed in the early 1970's. Essentially, nobody possesses knowledge of all its elements except for its original developers, and while some practical and theoretical aspects have been published over the years, none have included the level of detail that would be necessary for a potential user to adopt and understand the technique easily. This book is unique in providing a highly detailed, comprehensive technical description of the theory and practice underlying the MIGET to help potential users set up the method and solve problems they may encounter. But it is much more than a reference manual - it is a substantial physiological and mathematical treatise in its own right. It also has a wide applicability - there is extensive discussion of the common biological problem of quantitative inference. The authors took measured whole-lung gas exchange variables, and used mathematical procedures to infer the distribution of ventilation and blood flow from this data. In so doing, they developed novel approaches to answer the question: What are the limits to what can be concluded when inferring the inner workings from the "black box" behavior of a system? The book details the approaches developed, which can be generalized to other similar distributed functions within tissues and organs. They involve engineering approaches such as linear and quadratic programming, and uniquely use mathematical tools with biological constraints to obtain as much information as possible about a "black box" system.
Lastly, the book summarizes the hundreds of research papers published by a number of groups over the decades in a way never before attempted in order to marshal the world's literature on the topic and to provide in one place the wealth of important discoveries, both physiological and clinical, enabled by the technique.
The 14th volume in the series will focus on cutting edge research at the interface of hypoxia and exercise. The work will cover the range from molecular mechanisms of muscle fatigue and muscle wasting to whole body exercise on the world's highest mountains. State of the art papers on training at high altitude for low altitude athletic performance will also be featured.
This monograph provides the theoretical foundations needed for the construction of fundamental solutions and fundamental matrices of (systems of) linear partial differential equations. Many illustrative examples also show techniques for finding such solutions in terms of integrals. Particular attention is given to developing the fundamentals of distribution theory, accompanied by calculations of fundamental solutions. The main part of the book deals with existence theorems and uniqueness criteria, the method of parameter integration, the investigation of quasihyperbolic systems by means of Fourier and Laplace transforms, and the representation of fundamental solutions of homogeneous elliptic operators with the help of Abelian integrals. In addition to rigorous distributional derivations and verifications of fundamental solutions, the book also shows how to construct fundamental solutions (matrices) of many physically relevant operators (systems), in elasticity, thermoelasticity, hexagonal/cubic elastodynamics, for Maxwell's system and others. The book mainly addresses researchers and lecturers who work with partial differential equations. However, it also offers a valuable resource for students with a solid background in vector calculus, complex analysis and functional analysis.
The latest in a series of books from the International Hypoxia Symposia, this volume spans reviews on key topics in hypoxia, and abstracts from poster and oral presentations. The biannual International Hypoxia Symposia are dedicated to hosting the best basic scientific and clinical minds to focus on the integrative and translational biology of hypoxia. Long before `translational medicine' was a catchphrase, the founders of the International Hypoxia Symposia brought together basic scientists, clinicians and physiologists to live, eat, ski, innovate and collaborate in the Canadian Rockies.This collection of reviews and abstracts is divided into six sections, each covering new and important work relevant to a broad range of researchers interested in how humans adjust to hypoxia, whether on the top of Mt. Everest or in the pulmonary or cardiology clinic at low altitude. The sections include:
Epigenetic Variations in Hypoxia
High Altitude Adaptation
Hypoxia and Sleep
Hypoxia and the Brain
Molecular Oxygen Sensing
Physiological Responses to Hypoxia
Litigation Services Handbook, Fourth Edition is referred to as the litigation bible. Its nearly 50 chapters read like a who's who in law and accounting. The handbook includes all aspects of litigation services, including current environments, the process itself, a wealth of cases, how to prove damages, and practical considerations of court appearances. The new edition has a heavy focus on fraud investigations and complying with Sarbanes-Oxley requirements.
Im vorliegenden Buch wird das noch junge Forschungsfeld Gastronomie beleuchtet. Eingangs wird das Forschungsfeld eingegrenzt und definiert. Darauf aufbauend werden innovative Forschungsprojekte im Bereich Gastronomie vorgestellt. So werden beispielsweise die kulinarischen Grundeinstellungen von Gästen der Wiener Gastronomie analysiert oder die Umsetzung von Nachhaltigkeit in Großküchen diskutiert. Weitere Beiträge beschäftigen sich mit der Abgrenzung von Gastronomie und Culinary Tourism sowie dem praxisorientierten Einsatz von Forschungsergebnissen in der Gastronomie.
In dieser Open-Access-Publikation analysieren die Autoren die ffentliche Debatte um Chancen und Risiken von Big Data und diskutieren die konkreten Implikationen in verschiedenen Lebensbereichen. In einer repräsentativen Befragung vermessen sie das Wissen und die Einstellung der Bevlkerung zu Big Data. Im Ergebnis verhalten sich die Nutzer paradox, sorglos und besorgt zugleich. Gezeigt wird aber auch, an welchen Punkten die Bürger aufgeschlossen für einen neuen Umgang mit Big Data sind. Daten-Sharing, Open Data finden durchaus Akzeptanz, ebenso auch neue Muster für bestehende Branchen, jenseits der tradierten Vorstellungen.
Probably the best-studied stream on earth.
The result of unmatched long-term data taken by the Max-Planck outstation in Schlitz from the nearby Breitenbach stream since 1949, the special focus in this handbook and ready reference is on animal and microorganism occurrence and variation, as well as chemical and physical parameters.
An invaluable data basis for modeling purposes for anyone dealing with stream ecology.