Qui choisit votre université ? Qui vous accorde un crédit, une assurance, et sélectionne vos professeurs ? Qui influence votre vote aux élections ? Ce sont des formules mathématiques.
Ancienne analyste à Wall Street devenue une figure majeure de la lutte contre les dérives des algorithmes, Cathy O'Neil dévoile ces « armes de destruction mathématiques » qui se développent grâce à l'ultra-connexion et leur puissance de calcul exponentielle. Brillante mathématicienne, elle explique avec une simplicité percutante comment les algorithmes font le jeu du profit.
Cet ouvrage fait le tour du monde depuis sa parution. Il explore des domaines aussi variés que l'emploi, l'éducation, la politique, nos habitudes de consommation. Nous ne pouvons plus ignorer les dérives croissantes d'une industrie des données qui favorise les inégalités et continue d'échapper à tout contrôle. Voulons-nous que ces formules mathématiques décident à notre place ? C'est un débat essentiel, au coeur de la démocratie.
A former Wall Street quant sounds an alarm on the mathematical models that pervade modern life - and threaten to rip apart our social fabric
We live in the age of the algorithm. Increasingly, the decisions that affect our lives - where we go to school, whether we get a loan, how much we pay for insurance - are being made not by humans, but by mathematical models. In theory, this should lead to greater fairness: everyone is judged according to the same rules, and bias is eliminated. And yet, as Cathy O'Neil reveals in this urgent and necessary book, the opposite is true. The models being used today are opaque, unregulated, and incontestable, even when they're wrong. Most troubling, they reinforce discrimination. Tracing the arc of a person's life, O'Neil exposes the black box models that shape our future, both as individuals and as a society. These "weapons of math destruction" score teachers and students, sort CVs, grant or deny loans, evaluate workers, target voters, and monitor our health. O'Neil calls on modellers to take more responsibility for their algorithms and on policy makers to regulate their use. But in the end, it's up to us to become more savvy about the models that govern our lives. This important book empowers us to ask the tough questions, uncover the truth, and demand change.
Longlisted for the National Book Award New York Times Bestseller A former Wall Street quant sounds an alarm on the mathematical models that pervade modern life -- and threaten to rip apart our social fabric We live in the age of the algorithm. Increasingly, the decisions that affect our lives--where we go to school, whether we get a car loan, how much we pay for health insurance--are being made not by humans, but by mathematical models. In theory, this should lead to greater fairness: Everyone is judged according to the same rules, and bias is eliminated. But as Cathy O’Neil reveals in this urgent and necessary book, the opposite is true. The models being used today are opaque, unregulated, and uncontestable, even when they’re wrong. Most troubling, they reinforce discrimination: If a poor student can’t get a loan because a lending model deems him too risky (by virtue of his zip code), he’s then cut off from the kind of education that could pull him out of poverty, and a vicious spiral ensues. Models are propping up the lucky and punishing the downtrodden, creating a “toxic cocktail for democracy.” Welcome to the dark side of Big Data. Tracing the arc of a person’s life, O’Neil exposes the black box models that shape our future, both as individuals and as a society. These “weapons of math destruction” score teachers and students, sort résumés, grant (or deny) loans, evaluate workers, target voters, set parole, and monitor our health. O’Neil calls on modelers to take more responsibility for their algorithms and on policy makers to regulate their use. But in the end, it’s up to us to become more savvy about the models that govern our lives. This important book empowers us to ask the tough questions, uncover the truth, and demand change. -- Longlist for National Book Award (Non-Fiction) -- Goodreads, semi-finalist for the 2016 Goodreads Choice Awards (Science and Technology) -- Kirkus, Best Books of 2016 -- New York Times, 100 Notable Books of 2016 (Non-Fiction) -- The Guardian, Best Books of 2016 -- WBUR's "On Point," Best Books of 2016: Staff Picks -- Boston Globe, Best Books of 2016, Non-Fiction
This international survey addresses gaps in the knowledge base on problem gambling, emphasizing evidence-based best practices for working with this diverse and notably resistant client population. A detailed introduction offers current findings on behavioral, affective, and neurological manifestations of disordered gambling, with prevalent types of resultant psychological, financial, and social harm. The book's conceptual discussion examines clinical and sub-clinical presentations as well as the complex interplay of psychological and social factors that create barriers to seeking help. And on the practical side, up-to-date chapters detail widely-used and newer treatment options for compulsive gambling with the best chances of reducing treatment non-compliance and post-treatment relapses, including: · Psychoeducation.· Motivational interviewing.· Cognitive behavioral therapy.· Metacognitive and mindfulness approaches.· Acceptance and Commitment Therapy.· Dialectical Behavior Therapy.· Schema therapy.· Pharmacology.· Relapse Prevention. Evidence-Based Treatments for Problem Gambling is a ready source of insights, data, and strategies for counselors working in problem gambling treatment centers, and for psychologists and counselors operating in public or private practice who see individuals with problem gambling as a primary or comorbid presentation. Researchers, lecturers, and treatment clinic managers will find this presentation both informative and immediately useful.
This timely collection engages with representations of women and ageing in literature and visual culture. Acknowledging that cultural conceptions of ageing are constructed and challenged across a variety of media and genres, the editors bring together experts in literature and visual culture to foster a dialogue across disciplines. Exploring the process of ageing in its cultural reflections, refractions and reimaginings, the contributors to Ageing Women in Literature and Visual Culture analyse how artists, writers, directors and performers challenge, and in some cases reaffirm, cultural constructions of ageing women, as well as give voice to ageing women's subjectivities. The book concludes with an afterword by Germaine Greer which suggests possible avenues for future research.