For many centuries, the world of Islam was in the forefront of human achievement--the foremost military and economic power in the world, the leader in the arts and sciences of civilization. Christian Europe, a remote land beyond its northwestern frontier, was seen as an outer darkness of barbarism and unbelief from which there was nothing to learn or to fear. And then everything changed, as the previously despised West won victory after victory, first in the battlefield and the marketplace, then in almost every aspect of public and even private life.
In this intriguing volume, Bernard Lewis examines the anguished reaction of the Islamic world as it tried to understand why things had changed--how they had been overtaken, overshadowed, and to an increasing extent dominated by the West. Lewis provides a fascinating portrait of a culture in turmoil. He shows how the Middle East turned its attention to understanding European weaponry and military tactics, commerce and industry, government and diplomacy, education and culture. Lewis highlights the striking differences between the Western and Middle Eastern cultures from the 18th to the 20th centuries through thought-provoking comparisons of such things as Christianity and Islam, music and the arts, the position of women, secularism and the civil society, the clock and the calendar.
Hailed in The New York Times Book Review as "the doyen of Middle Eastern studies," Bernard Lewis is one of the West's foremost authorities on Islamic history and culture. In this striking volume, he offers an incisive look at the historical relationship between the Middle East and Europe.
With the publication of The New Negro in 1925, Alain Locke introduced readers all over the U.S. to the vibrant world of African American thought. As an author, editor, and patron, Locke rightly earned the appellation "Godfather of the Harlem Renaissance." Yet, his intellectual contributions extend far beyond that single period of cultural history. Throughout his life he penned essays, on topics ranging from John Keats to Sigmund Freud, in addition to his trenchant social commentary on race and society.
The Works of Alain Locke provides the largest collection available of his brilliant essays, gathered from a career that spanned forty years. They cover an impressively broad field of subjects: philosophy, literature, the visual arts, music, the theory of value, race, politics, and multiculturalism. Alongside seminal works such as "The New Negro" the volume features essays like "The Ethics of Culture," "Apropos of Africa," and "Pluralism and Intellectual Democracy." Together, these writings demonstrate Locke's standing as the leading African American thinker between W. E. B. Du Bois and Martin Luther King, Jr.
The foreword by Henry Louis Gates Jr. and the introduction by
Arrhythmias in Women: Diagnosis and Treatment draws upon the experience of national leaders in the field of women's heart disease to address the unique aspects involved in the diagnosis and treatment of women with arrhythmias and implantable device therapy. Written by distinguished consultants in the Division of Cardiovascular Diseases of Mayo Clinic, this book provides a concise and up-to-date review of the diagnosis and treatment of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias in women. Additionally, this critical book reviews indications for device therapy and management of device complications in women. It is an essential book for health care providers such as internists, cardiologists, and electrophysiologists.
As the leadership field continues to evolve, there are many reasons to be optimistic about the various theoretical and empirical contributions in better understanding leadership from a scholarly and scientific perspective. The Oxford Handbook of Leadership and Organizations brings together a collection of comprehensive, state-of-the-science reviews and perspectives on the most pressing historical and contemporary leadership issues - with a particular focus on theory and research - and looks to the future of the field. It provides a broad picture of the leadership field as well as detailed reviews and perspectives within the respective areas. Each chapter, authored by leading international authorities in the various leadership sub-disciplines, explores the history and background of leadership in organizations, examines important research issues in leadership from both quantitative and qualitative perspectives, and forges new directions in leadership research, practice, and education.
More than five decades have passed since Jane Jacobs wrote her classic The Death and Life of Great American Cities, and since a front page headline in the New York Times read, "Cars Choking Cities as 'Urban Sprawl' Takes Over." Yet sprawl persists, and not by mistake. It happens for a reason.
As an activist and a scholar, Benjamin Ross is uniquely placed to diagnose why this is so. Dead End traces how the ideal of a safe, green, orderly retreat where hardworking members of the middle class could raise their children away from the city mutated into the McMansion and strip mall-ridden suburbs of today. Ross finds that sprawl is much more than bad architecture and sloppy planning. Its roots are historical, sociological, and economic. He uses these insights to lay out a practical strategy for change, honed by his experience leading the largest grass-roots mass transit advocacy organization in the United States. The problems of smart growth, sustainability, transportation, and affordable housing, he argues, are intertwined and must be solved as a whole. The two keys to creating better places to live are expansion of rail transit and a more genuinely democratic oversight of land use.
Dead End is, ultimately, about the places where we live our lives. Both an engaging history of suburbia and an invaluable guide for today's urbanists, it will serve as a primer for anyone interested in how Americans actually live.
Understanding Antiepileptic Drugs enhances patient knowledge and to acts as a facilitator to fill a significant gap in patient-physician communication in the field of epilepsy. There are several studies which show evidence that compliance in taking medication is absolutely crucial for successful medical treatment. A precondition for compliance, in addition to a trusting patient-physician relationship, is the ability to understand the medication under discussion and to be competent to be able to ask the right questions of your doctor. The ultimate goal should be to make the patient the expert of their condition. Patients often feel overwhelmed by the usual product monograph and they can become lost in complex information they do not understand or know how to prioritize.
The euro's life, while only slightly more than a decade long, has been riddled by a series of challenges and crises. The eruption of the Greek crisis in 2010 took European policymakers by surprise and forced them to design responses to a quickly deteriorating situation. Even though Europe has final begun to stabilize, the disparity between the prosperous Northern countries, especially Germany, and the plummeting Southern countries, including Spain and Greece, has exacerbated economic and political problems within the Eurozone. Amidst loud and frequent debates, solutions have been enacted, but the struggles facing this monetary union continue to develop even today.
The Euro Crisis and Its Aftermath was written to inform readers about the roots of this enduring European crisis and the alternative proposals for ending it. In four parts, Jean Pisani-Ferry explains the origins of the European currency, the build-up of imbalances and oversights that led to the crisis, the choices European policymakers have both addressed and ignored since 2010, and the evolution of the policy agenda and possible options for the future. The book is as much of an informative and analytical history as it is a discussion of solutions for a more prosperous European economy.
Rather than putting forth and supporting a thesis, Pisani-Ferry helps readers understand the past and present of the euro crisis and form their own opinions about potential solutions. This book is not intended to reach only economists, as time has long passed since European monetary unification was a debate limited to academics. This book is also for the policy makers searching for solutions, citizens of Europe enduring the consequences, and the international community that has felt the effects of an unstable Eurozone.
Between the 1860s and 1920s, Chicago's working-class immigrants designed the American dream of home-ownership. They imagined homes as small businesses, homes that were simultaneously a consumer-oriented respite from work and a productive space that workers hoped to control.
Stretching out of town along with Chicago's assembly-line factories, Chicago's early suburbs were remarkably socially and economically diverse. They were marketed by real estate developers and urban boosters with the elusive promise that homeownership might offer some bulwark against the vicissitudes of industrial capitalism, that homes might be "better than a bank for a poor man" and "the working man's reward." This promise evolved into what Lewinnek terms "the mortgages of whiteness," the hope that property values might increase if that property could be kept white. Suburbs also developed through nineteenth-century notions of the gendered respectability of domesticity, early ideas about city planning and land economics, and an evolving twentieth-century discourse about the racial attributes of property values. Looking at the persistent challenges of racial difference, economic inequality, and private property ownership that were present in urban design and planning from the start, Lewinnek argues that white Americans' attachment to property and community were not simply reactions to post-1945 Civil Rights Movement and federally enforced integration policies. Rather, Chicago's mostly immigrant working class bought homes, seeking an elusive respectability and class mobility, and trying to protect their property values against what they perceived as African American threats, which eventually flared in violent racial conflict.
The Working Man's Reward examines the roots of America's suburbanization in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, showing how Chicagoans helped form America's urban sprawl.
The Oxford Handbook of Qualitative Research presents a comprehensive overview of the field of qualitative research. It is intended for students of all levels, faculty, and researchers across the social sciences. The contributors represent some of the most influential and innovative researchers in the field as well as emerging scholars. This handbook provides a broad introduction to the field of qualitative research to those with little to no background in the subject, while simultaneously providing substantive contributions to the field that will be of interest to even the most experienced researchers. It serves as a user-friendly teaching tool suitable for a range of undergraduate or graduate courses, as well as individuals working on their thesis or other research projects. With a focus on methodological instruction, this volume offers both a retrospective and prospective view of the field. The first two sections explore the history of the field, ethics and philosophical/theoretical approaches. The next three sections focus on the major methods of qualitative practice as well as newer approaches (such as arts-based research and internet research); area studies often excluded (such as museum studies and disaster studies); and mixed methods and participatory methods (such as community-based research). The next section covers key issues including data analysis, interpretation, writing and assessment. The final section offers a commentary about politics and research and the move towards public scholarship.
Since Pakistan was founded in 1947, its army has dominated the state. The military establishment has locked the country in an enduring rivalry with India, with the primary aim of wresting Kashmir from it. To that end, Pakistan initiated three wars over Kashmir-in 1947, 1965, and 1999-and failed to win any of them. Today, the army continues to prosecute this dangerous policy by employing non-state actors under the security of its ever-expanding nuclear umbrella. It has sustained a proxy war in Kashmir since 1989 using Islamist militants, as well as supporting non-Islamist insurgencies throughout India and a country-wide Islamist terror campaign that have brought the two countries to the brink of war on several occasions. In addition to these territorial revisionist goals, the Pakistani army has committed itself to resisting India's slow but inevitable rise on the global stage.
Despite Pakistan's efforts to coerce India, it has achieved only modest successes at best. Even though India vivisected Pakistan in 1971, Pakistan continues to see itself as India's equal and demands the world do the same. The dangerous methods that the army uses to enforce this self-perception have brought international opprobrium upon Pakistan and its army. And in recent years, their erstwhile proxies have turned their guns on the Pakistani state itself.
Why does the army persist in pursuing these revisionist policies that have come to imperil the very viability of the state itself, from which the army feeds? In Fighting to the End, C. Christine Fair argues that the answer lies, at least partially, in the strategic culture of the army. Through an unprecedented analysis of decades' worth of the army's own defense publications, she concludes that from the army's distorted view of history, it is victorious as long as it can resist India's purported drive for regional hegemony as well as the territorial status quo. Simply put, acquiescence means defeat. Fighting to the End convincingly shows that because the army is unlikely to abandon these preferences, Pakistan will remain a destabilizing force in world politics for the foreseeable future.
Alexander the Great, arguably the most exciting figure from antiquity, waged war as a Homeric hero and lived as one, conquering native peoples and territories on a superhuman scale. From the time he invaded Asia in 334 to his death in 323, he expanded the Macedonian empire from Greece in the west to Asia Minor, the Levant, Egypt, Central Asia and "India" (Pakistan and Kashmir) in the east. Although many other kings and generals forged empires, Alexander produced one that was without parallel, even if it was short-lived.
And yet, Alexander could not have achieved what he did without the accomplishments of his father, Philip II (r. 359-336). It was Philip who truly changed the course of Macedonian history, transforming a weak, disunited, and economically backward kingdom into a military powerhouse. A warrior king par excellence, Philip left Alexander with the greatest army in the Greek world, a centralized monarchy, economic prosperity, and a plan to invade Asia.
For the first time, By the Spear offers an exhilarating military narrative of the reigns of these two larger-than-life figures in one volume. Ian Worthington gives full breadth to the careers of father and son, showing how Philip was the architect of the Macedonian empire, which reached its zenith under Alexander, only to disintegrate upon his death. By the Spear also explores the impact of Greek culture in the East, as Macedonian armies became avatars of social and cultural change in lands far removed from the traditional sphere of Greek influence. In addition, the book discusses the problems Alexander faced in dealing with a diverse subject population and the strategies he took to what might be called nation building, all of which shed light on contemporary events in culturally dissimilar regions of the world. The result is a gripping and unparalleled account of the role these kings played in creating a vast empire and the enduring legacy they left behind.
The nexus between the digital revolution and adolescent sexual behavior has posed significant challenges to mental health practitioners, attorneys, and educators. These digital technologies may facilitate dangerous behaviors and serious consequences for some youth. Adolescent Sexual Development in the Digital Age considers adolescent sexual behavior in both clinical and legal contexts and provides a basis for clinicians, legal professionals, educators, policy makers, parents and the general public to understand the impact that technology has on human growth and development. The book's contributing authors are leading authorities in adolescent development, law, and ethics, fostering an interdisciplinary dialogue within the text.
New technology poses many opportunities for both normal and risky sexual behavior in youth; including "sexting," social networking, cyber-sexual harassment, commercial exploitation of children, and child pornography. Beyond just cataloging the various technologies impacting sexual behavior, this volume offers guidance and strategies for addressing the issues created by the digital age.
The 1828 presidential election, which pitted Major General Andrew Jackson against incumbent John Quincy Adams, has long been hailed as a watershed moment in American political history. It was the contest in which an unlettered, hot-tempered southwestern frontiersman, trumpeted by his supporters as a genuine man of the people, soundly defeated a New England "aristocrat" whose education and political resume were as impressive as any ever seen in American public life. It was, many historians have argued, the country's first truly democratic presidential election. It was also the election that opened a Pandora's box of campaign tactics, including coordinated media, get-out-the-vote efforts, fund-raising, organized rallies, opinion polling, campaign paraphernalia, ethnic voting blocs, "opposition research," and smear tactics.
In The Birth of Modern Politics, Parsons shows that the Adams-Jackson contest also began a national debate that is eerily contemporary, pitting those whose cultural, social, and economic values were rooted in community action for the common good against those who believed the common good was best served by giving individuals as much freedom as possible to promote their own interests. The book offers fresh and illuminating portraits of both Adams and Jackson and reveals how, despite their vastly different backgrounds, they had started out with many of the same values, admired one another, and had often been allies in common causes. But by 1828, caught up in a shifting political landscape, they were plunged into a competition that separated them decisively from the Founding Fathers' era and ushered in a style of politics that is still with us today.
Four-Handed Monsters surveys the cultural perception of four-hand piano playing in the nineteenth century. As the piano became a central institution of the bourgeois household and as piano transcriptions created a stable canon of classic works, four-hand playing became a ubiquitous and structurally important buttress of domestic life, provoking reflections in the literature, philosophy, journalism and the visual arts of the age.
Seventy years ago, more than six thousand Allied ships carried more than a million soldiers across the English Channel to a fifty-mile-wide strip of the Normandy coast in German-occupied France. It was the greatest sea-borne assault in human history. The code names given to the beaches where the ships landed the soldiers have become immortal: Gold, Juno, Sword, Utah, and especially Omaha, the scene of almost unimaginable human tragedy. The sea of crosses in the cemetery sitting today atop a bluff overlooking the beaches recalls to us its cost.
Most accounts of this epic story begin with the landings on the morning of June 6, 1944. In fact, however, D-Day was the culmination of months and years of planning and intense debate. In the dark days after the evacuation of Dunkirk in the summer of 1940, British officials and, soon enough, their American counterparts, began to consider how, and, where, and especially when, they could re-enter the European Continent in force. The Americans, led by U.S. Army Chief of Staff General George C. Marshall, wanted to invade as soon as possible; the British, personified by their redoubtable prime minister, Winston Churchill, were convinced that a premature landing would be disastrous. The often-sharp negotiations between the English-speaking allies led them first to North Africa, then into Sicily, then Italy. Only in the spring of 1943, did the Combined Chiefs of Staff commit themselves to an invasion of northern France. The code name for this invasion was Overlord, but everything that came before, including the landings themselves and the supply system that made it possible for the invaders to stay there, was code-named Neptune.
Craig L. Symonds now offers the complete story of this Olympian effort, involving transports, escorts, gunfire support ships, and landing craft of every possible size and function. The obstacles to success were many. In addition to divergent strategic views and cultural frictions, the Anglo-Americans had to overcome German U-boats, Russian impatience, fierce competition for insufficient shipping, training disasters, and a thousand other impediments, including logistical bottlenecks and disinformation schemes. Symonds includes vivid portraits of the key decision-makers, from Franklin Roosevelt and Churchill, to Marshall, Dwight Eisenhower, and Admiral Sir Bertram Ramsay, who commanded the naval element of the invasion. Indeed, the critical role of the naval forces--British and American, Coast Guard and Navy--is central throughout.
In the end, as Symonds shows in this gripping account of D-Day, success depended mostly on the men themselves: the junior officers and enlisted men who drove the landing craft, cleared the mines, seized the beaches and assailed the bluffs behind them, securing the foothold for the eventual campaign to Berlin, and the end of the most terrible war in human history.
Media and the Well-Being of Children and Adolescents brings together many of the field's most important scholars and media professionals to present cutting-edge theory and empirical research on both the benefits and risks to youth development. It examines the role that media play in the every-day lives of young people and their families, and considers both traditional media such as television and movies as well as "new" digital media, such as video games, cell phones, and the Internet.
The volume is divided into four parts. Part One provides up-to-date trends on children and adolescents' access to media in the home, as well as the time they spend with television, computers, and the Internet. Part Two presents research that highlights the potentially negative impact of age-inappropriate or excess media use on children's physical, cognitive, social, and emotional well-being. Part Three offers examples of how media enhance children's education, health, and social connections. Part Four explores implications for the creation of high-quality, enriching content that speaks to the needs and interests of young people today.
The volume's interdisciplinary perspective acknowledges the many controversies surrounding the effects of media on youth, and offers a balanced view of the challenges and opportunities that media represent for healthy development. The book is intended to be a resource for students and scholars working within education, developmental psychology, public health, and communication. Additionally, it speaks to media professionals who seek to create content that enriches the lives of children and adolescents.
Financial sustainability is one of the key challenges confronting Europe's universities today. Despite the fact that universities are at the centre of knowledge creation and development, which itself is seen as one of the main engines of economic growth, public funding of higher education in most countries is not increasing or at least not increasing enough in real terms. "Democratisation of higher education" has led to the fact that the higher education budgets per student are relatively low in most European countries compared to Europe's competitors. Despite declarations of intent to increase spending on higher education and research, it is not very likely that public expenditure will grow significantly on average in Europe and therefore be able to keep up with rapidly inflating costs in the years to come. One of the reasons for this is that higher education and research have to compete with other priorities in public budgets (e.g., security, health, etc.).
Furthermore, the recent economic downturn has contributed to the decision in many European countries to decrease the levels of investment in higher education and research. Such trends are particularly worrisome for universities across Europe, whose continuing dependence on public funding puts their future sustainability under pressure. New funding schemes and incentives have been discussed and introduced in many European higher education systems, including competitive funding schemes for research under the name of "excellence" policies.
Despite the different national institutional configurations in Europe, higher education systems face similar demands of promoting sustainable funding models, maintaining high academic standards, and equality. Thus, financial sustainability is not an end in itself; it aims to ensure that the public university's goals are reached by guaranteeing that the institution produces sufficient income to enable it to invest in high quality education and produce equitable outcomes. For these reasons, this book analyses funding reforms from a multidimensional approach.
The appeal of philosophy has always been its willingness to speak to those pressing questions that haunt us as we make our way through life. What is truth? Could we think without language? Is materialism everything? But in recent years, philosophy has been largely absent from mainstream cultural commentary. Many have come to believe that the field is excessively technical and inward-looking and that it has little to offer outsiders.
The 25 interviews collected in this volume, all taken from a series of online interviews with leading philosophers published by the cultural magazine 3ammagazine.com, were carried out with the aim of confronting widespread ignorance about contemporary philosophy. Interviewer Richard Marshall's informed and enthusiastic questions help his subjects explain the meaning of their work in a way that is accessible to non-specialists. Contemporary philosophical issues are presented through engaging but serious dialogues that, taken together, offer a glimpse into key debates across the discipline.
Alongside metaphysics, philosophy of mind, epistemology, logic, philosophy of science, philosophy of language, political philosophy and ethics, discussed here are feminist philosophy, continental philosophy, pragmatism, philosophy of religion, experimental philosophy, bioethics, animal rights, and legal philosophy. Connections between philosophy and fields such as psychology, cognitive science, and theology are likewise examined. Marshall interviews philosophers both established and up-and coming.
Engaging, thoughtful and thought-provoking, inviting anyone with a hunger for philosophical questions and answers to join in, Philosophy at 3:AM shows that contemporary philosophy can be relevant -- and even fun.
The new, completely revised, and updated edition of this classic text --sponsored by the International Epidemiological Association (IEA) and previously edited by John Last-- remains the definitive dictionary in epidemiology worldwide. In fact, with contributions from over 220 epidemiologists and other users of epidemiology from around the globe, it is more than a dictionary: it includes explanations and comments on both core epidemiologic terms and on other scientific terms relevant to all professionals in clinical medicine and public health, as well as to professionals in the other health, life, and social sciences. Anyone seeking clarity on epidemiologic and methodological definitions important to human health will find it here. On the eve of a field trip to a foreign land, a health scientist remarked that if he had to limit his professional library to one volume on epidemiology, this would be the book he would choose.
The Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics is the first comprehensive and systematic reference on clinical research ethics. Under the editorship of experts from the U.S. National Institutes of Health of the United States, the book's 73 chapters offer a wide-ranging and systematic examination of all aspects of research with human beings.
Considering the historical triumphs of research as well as its tragedies, the textbook provides a framework for analyzing the ethical aspects of research studies with human beings. Through both conceptual analysis and systematic reviews of empirical data, the contributors examine issues ranging from scientific validity, fair subject selection, risk benefit ratio, independent review, and informed consent to focused consideration of international research ethics, conflicts of interests, and other aspects of responsible conduct of research.
The editors of The Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics offer a work that critically assesses and advances scholarship in the field of human subjects research. Comprehensive in scope and depth, this book will be a crucial resource for researchers in the medical sciences, as well as teachers and students.
In the first comprehensive study of the relationship between music and language from the standpoint of cognitive neuroscience, Aniruddh D. Patel challenges the widespread belief that music and language are processed independently. Since Plato's time, the relationship between music and language has attracted interest and debate from a wide range of thinkers. Recently, scientific research on this topic has been growing rapidly, as scholars from diverse disciplines, including linguistics, cognitive science, music cognition, and neuroscience are drawn to the music-language interface as one way to explore the extent to which different mental abilities are processed by separate brain mechanisms. Accordingly, the relevant data and theories have been spread across a range of disciplines. This volume provides the first synthesis, arguing that music and language share deep and critical connections, and that comparative research provides a powerful way to study the cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying these uniquely human abilities.
Winner of the 2008 ASCAP Deems Taylor Award
Expectations, Employment and Prices brings Keynesian economics into the 21st century by providing a new paradigm that explains how high unemployment could potentially persist forever without a little help from the government. The book fills in logical gaps that were missing from Keynes' General Theory of Employment Interest and Money by reconciling some of its key ideas with modern economic theory. Central bankers throughout the world are talking now about developing a second instrument of monetary policy in addition to controlling the interest rate. Roger Farmer directly addresses this issue and offers new creative monetary policy proposals and suggestions for the design of new financial institutions for the 21st century.
They baked New England's Thanksgiving pies, preached their faith to crowds of worshippers, spied for the patriots during the Revolution, wrote that human bondage was a sin, and demanded reparations for slavery. Black women in colonial and revolutionary New England sought not only legal emancipation from slavery but defined freedom more broadly to include spiritual, familial, and economic dimensions.
Hidden behind the banner of achieving freedom was the assumption that freedom meant affirming black manhood The struggle for freedom in New England was different for men than for women. Black men in colonial and revolutionary New England were struggling for freedom from slavery and for the right to patriarchal control of their own families. Women had more complicated desires, seeking protection and support in a male headed household while also wanting personal liberty. Eventually women who were former slaves began to fight for dignity and respect for womanhood and access to schooling for black children.