Serbia´s national movement of the 1980s and 1990s, the author suggests, was not the product of an ancient, immutable, and aggressive Serbian national identity; nor was it an artificial creation of powerful political actors looking to capitalize on its mobilizing power. Miller argues that cultural processes are too often ignored in favor of political ones; that Serbian intellectuals did work within a historical context, but that they were not slaves to the past. His subjects are Dobrica ´Cosi´c (a novelist), Mi´ca Popovi´c (a painter) and Borislav Mihajlovi´c Mihiz (a literary critic). These three influential Serbian intellectuals concluded by the late 1960s that communism had failed the Serbian people; together, they helped forge a new Serbian identity that fused older cultural imagery with modern conditions. "Theoretically informed, elegantly written, and rich in necessary nuances, the book offers a corrective to simplistic, one-dimensional interpretations of the role of intellectuals in the rise of Serbian nationalism. It provides a critical analysis of the meanders of national politics during the Tito regime. The discussion of the Rankovi´c affair and its role in catalyzing ´Cosi´c´s sense of Serbs being victims of national discrimination is among the best in literature. For Miller, like for such authors as Isaiah Berlin and Leah Greenfeld, nationalism is a matter of dignity." Vladimir Tismaneanu, University of Maryland "Nick Miller is the riveting stylist who happens to be a historian, and the judicious historian who happens to be a writer. His humane and passionate account of the `Nonconformists´ will cause those who have read everything on the subject to rethink what they know; and those who have read not a single book to want to know more. Both sets of readers-and those in between-will find this book exceptionally edifying." John Connelly, University of California Berkeley "Miller´s insightful study tackles the interaction of culture, politics, and nationalism in Serbia since 1945. Skillfully avoiding the extremes typical of much existing literature, which tends to describe nationalism in Serbia either as the expression of centuries old ethnic hatreds or the creation of unscrupulous politicians, Miller offers an entirely new approach grounding it in the specific postwar experiences of a small but important group of Serbian intellectuals. With tightly woven prose and dry humor, Miller shows how the genuine and sincere intellectuals who inspired unscrupulous politicians like Milosevi´c evolved from humanists `willing to let communism have its chance´ into committed nationalists. As we enter their psyches, and learn their individual backgrounds and experiences, we begin to see why their message was so effective and the masses so easily manipulated. Thus Miller´s work connects politics to the realm of culture in a way that is critical to understanding the events of the last decades." Carol Lilly, University of Nebraska
The main issues arising from the encounter between Roma people and surrounding European society since the time of their arrival in Medieval Europe until today are discussed in this work. The history of their persecution and genocide during the Nazi era, in particular, is central to the present volume. Significantly, some authors sought to emphasize the continuing history of prejudice and persecution, which reached a peak during the Nazi era and persisted after the war. Current questions of social integration in Europe, as well as that of ethnic definition and the construction of ethnic-national identity constitute another principal pillar of the book. The complexity of issues involved, such as collective memory, myth-making and social constructionism, trigger intense debate among researchers dealing with Romani studies. This volume is the result of an international conference held at Tel Aviv University in December 2002. The conference, one of the largest held among the academic community in the last decade, served as a unique forum for a multidisciplinary discussion on the past and present of the Roma in which both Roma and non-Roma scholars from various countries engaged.
Twentieth-century Southeastern Europe endured three, separate decades of international and civil war, and was marred in forced migration and wrenching systematic changes. This book is the result of a year-long project by the Open Society Institute to examine and reappraise this tumultuous century. A cohort of young scholars with backgrounds in history, anthropology, political science, and comparative literature were brought together for this undertaking. The studies invite attention to fascism, socialism, and liberalism as well as nationalism and Communism. While most chapters deal with war and confrontation, they focus rather on the remembrance of such conflicts in shaping today's ideology and national identity. "This ably edited volume dealing with twentieth-century southeastern Europe is most welcome. ...the project coorrdinators came to an agreement with their collaborators to foicus on nationalis, communism, fascism, liberalism, and religion. And indeed, all of these elements may be found between the covers of this volume, although the contributors were evidently given free rein. ...this volume offers insights into some neglected areas and is a most welcome addition to the literature on the history of East Central Europe." - The American Historical Review "A truly unique and splendid addition to historical writing on southeastern Europe... Unique is the editors' insistence that each author include several translated primary sources. The diversity of sources is unrivaled by any documentary reader available to those of us who teach European, east European or Balkan history." - Slavic Review
This dramatic story of land and power from twentieth-century Eastern Europe is set in two extraordinary villages: a rebel village, where peasants fought the advent of Communism and became its first martyrs, and a model village turned forcibly into a town, Dictator Ceausescu´s birthplace. The two villages capture among themselves nearly a century of dramatic transformation and social engineering, ending up with their charged heritage in the present European Union. "One of Romania´s foremost social critics, Alina Mungiu-Pippidi offers a valuable look at several decades of policy that marginalized that country´s rural population, from the 1918 land reform to the post-1989 property restitution. Illustrating her arguments with a close comparison of two contrasting villages, she describes the actions of a long series of "predatory elites," from feudal landowners through the Communist Party through post-communist leaders, all of whom maintained the rural population´s dependency. A forceful concluding chapter shows that its prospects for improvement are scarcely better within the EU. Romania´s villagers have an eminent and spirited advocate in the author."
"There is nothing quite like this book in the contemporary literature. It fills a salient vacuum and would make a fine contribution to a number of debates." - Philip Pettit, Professor of Social and Political Theory, Australian National University, Canberra. "The book offers high-level philosophical analysis of a topical issue, that of nationalism. The author takes a partisan, cosmopolitan position towards his subject. His main aim is to show that cultural isolationism, hostility towards the neighbors etc. . . . are logical consequences of nationalism." - János Kis, Professor of Political Philosophy, Central European University
Argues for an original, unorthodox conception about the relationship between globalization and contemporary nationalism. While the prevailing view holds that nationalism and globalization are forces of clashing opposition, Sabanadze establishes that these tend to become allied forces. Acknowledges that nationalism does react against the rising globalization and represents a form of resistance against globalizing influences, but the Basque and Georgian cases prove that globalization and nationalism can be complementary rather than contradictory tendencies. Nationalists have often served as promoters of globalization, seeking out globalizing influences and engaging with global actors out of their very nationalist interests. In the case of both Georgia and the Basque Country, there is little evidence suggesting the existence of strong, politically organized nationalist opposition to globalization. Discusses why, on a broader scale, different forms of nationalism develop differing attitudes towards globalization and engage in different relationships.Conventional wisdom suggests that sub-state nationalism in the post-Cold War era is a product of globalization. Sabanadze´s work encourages a rethinking of this proposition. Through careful analysis of the Georgian and Basque cases, she shows that the principal dynamics have little, if anything, to do with globalization and much to do with the political context and historical framework of these cases. This book is a useful corrective to facile thinking about the relationship between the "global" and the "local" in the explanation of civil conflict. Neil MacFarlane, Lester B. Pearson Professor of International Relations and fellow at St. Anne´s College, Oxford University and chair of the Oxford Politics and International Relations Department.
Based on previously unexplored archival documentation, this book offers the first general overview of the history of Italian eugenics, not limited to the decades of Fascist regime, but instead ranging from the beginning of the 1900s to the first half of the 1970s. The Author discusses several fundamental themes of the comparative history of eugenics: the importance of the Latin eugenic model; the relationship between eugenics and fascism; the influence of Catholicism on the eugenic discourse and the complex links between genetics and eugenics. It examines the Liberal pre-fascist period and the post-WW2 transition from fascist and racial eugenics to medical and human genetics. As far as fascist eugenics is concerned, the book provides a refreshing analysis, considering Italian eugenics as the most important case-study in order to define Latin eugenics as an alternative model to its Anglo-American, German and Scandinavian counterparts. Analyses in detail the nature-nurture debate during the State racist campaign in fascist Italy (1938-1943) as a boundary tool in the contraposition between the different institutional, political and ideological currents of fascist racism.
Certain to engender debate in the media, especially in Ukraine itself, as well as the academic community. Using a wide selection of newspapers, journals, monographs, and school textbooks from different regions of the country, the book examines the sensitive issue of the changing perspectives - often shifting 180 degrees - on several events discussed in the new narratives of the Stalin years published in the Ukraine since the late Gorbachev period until 2005. These events were pivotal to Ukrainian history in the 20th century, including the Famine of 1932-33 and Ukrainian insurgency during the war years. This latter period is particularly disputed, and analyzed with regard to the roles of the OUN (Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists) and the UPA (Ukrainian Insurgent Army) during and after the war. Were these organizations "freedom fighters" or "collaborators"? To what extent are they the architects of the modern independent state? "This excellent book fills a longstanding void in literature on the politics of memory in Eastern Europe. Professor Marples has produced an innovative and courageous study of how postcommunist Ukraine is rewriting its Stalinist and wartime past by gradually but inconsistently substituting Soviet models with nationalist interpretations. Grounded in an attentive reading of Ukrainian scholarship and journalism from the last two decades, this book offers a balanced take on such sensitive issues as the Great Famine of 1932-33 and the role of the Ukrainian nationalist insurgents during World War II. Instead of taking sides in the passionate debates on these subjects, Marples analyzes the debates themselves as discursive sites where a new national history is being forged. Clearly written and well argued, this study will make a major impact both within and beyond academia." - Serhy Yekelchyk, University of Victoria
Before the publication of this book, Alaine Polcz was widely recognized as a psychologist ministering to the needs of disturbed and incurably ill children and their families, as the author of numerous articles and several books on thanatology, and as the
Based on the idea that there is a considerable difference between reality and discourse, the author points out that history is constantly reconstructed, adapted and sometimes mythicized from the perspectives of the present day, present states of mind and
Democracy thrives on social dialogue and collective search for solution. As a forum for new ideas and impulses the Körber-Foundation seeks with its projects to involve citizens actively in social discourses. The private, non-profit-making foundation provides a forum for involvement in politics, education, science and international communication. Citizens who take part in competitions and round table discussions organized by the foundation benefit in many ways: they can pass on knowledge, identify problems and initiate activities. These kinds of stimulus form the Körber-Foundation´s contribution to the everyday culture of democracy.
This study analyzes the impact of the Czechoslovak crisis of 1968-1969 on the two major communist parties in the West: the Italian and French ones. Discusses the central strategic and ideological tensions which these parties needed to deal with: domestic
With the disintegration of the Soviet Union, a number of new states were created that had little or no claim to any previous existence. Ukraine is one of the countries that faced not only political, social and economic transformation, but also state formation and the redefinition of national identity. This book uses Ukraine as a case study in trying to trace the key moments of decision making in the course of creating a new state while shedding the legacies of "Soviet-type" statehood. The Moulding of Ukraine offers a systematic examination of competing ideological visions of statehood and discusses them against the backdrop of historical traditions in Ukraine. This well-documented and lucidly written book is the only coherent account available in English of the process of constitutional reform, offering an insight into post-Soviet Ukrainian politics. A useful addition to university course reading lists in Ukrainian studies, post-Soviet studies, post-communist democratization, comparative constitutionalism, state-building and institutional design.
Rejecting the cliché about "weak identity and underdeveloped nationalism," Bekus argues for the co-existence of two parallel concepts of Belarusianness-the official and the alternative one-which mirrors the current state of the Belarusian people more accurately and allows for a different interpretation of the interconnection between the democratization and nationalization of Belarusian society. The book describes how the ethno-symbolic nation of the Belarusian nationalists, based on the cultural capital of the Golden Age of the Belarusian past (17th century) competes with the "nation" institutionalized and reified by the numerous civic rituals and social practices under the auspices of the actual Belarusian state. Comparing the two concepts not only provides understanding of the logic that dominates Belarusian society´s self-description models, but also enables us to evaluate the chances of alternative Belarusianness to win this unequal struggle over identity.
How do museums and cinema shape the image of the Communist past in today´s Central and Eastern Europe? This volume is the first systematic analysis of how visual techniques are used to understand and put into context the former regimes. After history "ended" in the Eastern Bloc in 1989, museums and other memorials mushroomed all over the region. These efforts tried both to explain the meaning of this lost history, as well as to shape public opinion on their society´s shared post-war heritage. Museums and films made political use of recollections of the recent past, and employed selected museum, memorial, and media tools and tactics to make its political intent historically credible. Thirteen essays from scholars around the region take a fresh look at the subject as they address the strategies of fashioning popular perceptions of the recent past. "Books on the CEE transformations that deal with media and popular cultures should be welcomed. Past for the Eyes belongs to this extraordinary breed. The book is devoted to the visual representations of the socialist / communist past and the forms they took. The interconnected processes of visualization of the past, and the collective memory sedimentation are the main focus. The book brings together perspectives of linked but still distinctive ways of enquiry: visual studies, cultural studies, area studies, museum studies and contemporary history with its passion for ethnography and oral evidence.
A detailed academic treatise of the history of nationality in Tatarstan. The book demonstrates how state collapse and national revival influenced the divergence of worldviews among ex-Soviet people in Tatarstan, where a political movement for sovereignty
One of the greatest challenges during the enlargement process of the European Union towards the east is how the issue of the Roma or Gypsies is tackled. This ethnic minority group represents a much higher share by numbers, too, in some regions going above 20% of the population. This enormous social and political problem cannot be solved without proper historical studies like this book, the most comprehensive history of Gypsies in Romania. It is based on academic research, synthesizing the entire historical Romanian and foreign literature concerning this topic, and using lot of information from the archives. The main focus is laid on the events of the greatest consequence. Special attention is devoted to aspects linked to the long history of the Gypsies, such as slavery, the process of integration and assimilation into the majority population, as well as the marginalization of Gypsies, which has historic roots. The process of emancipation of Gypsies in the mid-19th century receives due treatment. The deportation of Gypsies to Transnistria during the Antonescu regime, between 1942-1944, is reconstructed in a special chapter. The closing chapters elaborate on the policy toward Gypsies in the decades after the Second World War that explain for the latest developments and for the situation of this population in today's Romania.
The historical biography of a true Jewish heroine in her day, Gracia Mendes. Born in 1510 in Portugal, the book details this woman's extraordinary personality until her death in 1569 in Constantinople (today's Istanbul). Her life exemplified a perseverance by the Jewish culture to survive and triumph even in the worst of conditions. As a young girl, Gracia secretly married successful Jewish spice trader, Francisco Mendes. But at age 27 she became a widow, yet she went on to raise her children and run the family business all on her own. Her travels led her through Antwerp, Venice, Ferrara, Ragusa, and finally to Constantinople, from where the Ottoman Empire dominated former Byzantium territories and offered shelter for battered Conversos (converted Jews). The text recounting the last fifteen years of Gracia's life at the center of the Empire is particularly revealing. Birnbaum's biography has the unique distinction of being the first among many studies to pay tribute to a woman during this period. It is also one of the first titles to pay equal attention to the lives of the Conversos in Christian West Europe and in the Muslim East.
"In this book Prof Balcerowicz brings together 17 academic articles that summarise his research on the process of radical economic transformation... It is an impressive volume which makes a convincing case for the post-communist transition to be as rapid
The book addresses contemporary developments in European identity politics as part of a larger historical trajectory of a common European identity based on the idea of 'solidarity.' The authors explain the special sense in which Europeans perceive their obligations to their less fortunate compatriots, to the new East European members, and to the world at large. An understanding of this notion of 'solidarity' is critical to understanding the specific European commitment to social justice and equality. The specificity of this term helps to distinguish between what the Germans call "social state" from the Anglo-Saxon, and particularly American, political and social system focused on capitalism and economic liberalism. This collection is the result of the work of an extremely distinguished group of scholars and politicians, invited by the previous President of the European Union, Romano Prodi, to reflect on some of the most important subjects affecting the future of Europe.
The articles in this volume deal with the role of Christianity in the definition of European identity. Europeans often identify advanced civilizations with secularity. But religion is very much alive in other fast developing countries of the world. In Europe, nevertheless, the organized churches very much wanted to stress the Christian character of European identity, and this engendered a lively protest focusing on the perceived threat to the secular European tradition. Also, Europe is facing its greatest cultural challenge in the demand of Turkey to be admitted as a member, and in the demand of many Muslims in Europe, often citizens of the countries in which they live, to be recognized in their difference and at the same time integrated in the European national and supranational institutions. These essays were written upon the invitation by the previous President of the European Union, Romano Prodi.
Historical revisionism, far from being restricted to small groups of `negationists,´ has galvanized debates in the realm of recent history. The studies in this book range from general accounts of the background of recent historical revisionism to focused
Addresses a critical analysis of major media policies in the European Union and Council of Europe at the period of profound changes affecting both media environments and use, as well as the logic of media policy-making and reconfiguration of traditional regulatory models. The analytical problem-related approach seems to better reflect a media policy process as an interrelated part of European integration, formation of European citizenship, and exercise of communication rights within the European communicative space. The question of normative expectations is to be compared in this case with media policy rationales, mechanisms of implementation (transposing rules from EU to national levels), and outcomes. Competent and experienced scholars of the subject describe and analyze the different patterns followed in the various countries, when attempting to adapt to the new conditions - technological, political and sociological (the media using habits of citizens). "Beata Klimkiewicz´s collection is nothing less than the timeliest book on the topic of European media policy and this for reasons that are intrinsic to the essence of most of the fourteen chapters. These chapters exemplify the continuing battle in regard to little regulation (some control) versus regulation (more control) versus overregulation (total control) and the realities that such choices engender; the continuing arguments over market media, public service media, and community media and how they should be regulated and shaped; and ultimately the quest for a new utopian European public sphere and equally utopian national media scenes in each EU member country. In well documented and argued chapters, western and eastern European scholars tackle issues such as the augmentation of the European public sphere; citizen access to and choices of information and news; regulations of content; developments in the blogosphere; the promotion of European "cultural diversity"; media and minors; media pluralism and diversity via public service broadcasting and its new functions and conceptualization; communication rights; and the governance shaping a European audiovisual landscape. As the EU enfolded many of the former communist countries into the bosom of the beautiful Europa, the ideational, conceptual, practical, and enforceability problems of media policies grew exponentially, as Klimkiewicz´s collection clearly demonstrates. The lessons from the overregulated, all-controlling policies of the now defunct Marxist-Leninist societies are yet to be internalized by the EU and the Council of Europe, it seems to me, and while they should seek to improve, as opposed to perfect, the European media world and public sphere, fewer policies that are less controlling and more responsive to the diverse realities of each member nation should be the order of the day. This book should be mandatory reading for students of the east European mass media and policymakers alike." - Slavic Review
This book interrogates the nature of anti-Americanism today and over the last century. It asks several questions: How do we define the phenomenon from different perspectives: political, social, and cultural? What are the historical sources and turning points of anti-Americanism in Europe and elsewhere? What are its links with anti-Semitic sentiment? Has anti-Americanism been beneficial or self-destructive to its "believers"? Finally, how has the United States responded and why? The authors, scholars from a multitude of countries, tackle the potential political consequences of anti-Americanism in Eastern and Central Europe, the region that has been perceived as strongly pro-American.