Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 180.
This volume addresses the rapid decline of Arctic sea ice, placing recent sea ice decline in the context of past observations, climate model simulations and projections, and simple models of the climate sensitivity of sea ice. Highlights of the work presented here include An appraisal of the role played by wind forcing in driving the decline; A reconstruction of Arctic sea ice conditions prior to human observations, based on proxy data from sediments; A modeling approach for assessing the impact of sea ice decline on polar bears, used as input to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's decision to list the polar bear as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act; Contrasting studies on the existence of a "tipping point," beyond which Arctic sea ice decline will become (or has already become) irreversible, including an examination of the role of the small ice cap instability in global warming simulations; A significant summertime atmospheric response to sea ice reduction in an atmospheric general circulation model, suggesting a positive feedback and the potential for short-term climate prediction. The book will be of interest to researchers attempting to understand the recent behavior of Arctic sea ice, model projections of future sea ice loss, and the consequences of sea ice loss for the natural and human systems of the Arctic.
Reliable and detailed information about the Earth's subsurface is of crucial importance throughout the geosciences. Quantitative integration of all available geophysical and geological data helps to make Earth models more robust and reliable. The aim of this book is to summarize and synthesize the growing literature on combining various types of geophysical and other geoscientific data. The approaches that have been developed to date encompass joint inversion, cooperative inversion, and statistical post-inversion analysis methods, each with different benefits and assumptions. Starting with the foundations of inverse theory, this book systematically describes the mathematical and theoretical aspects of how to best integrate different geophysical datasets with geological prior understanding and other complimentary data. This foundational basis is followed by chapters that demonstrate the diverse range of applications for which integrated methods have been used to date. These range from imaging the hydrogeological properties of the near-surface to natural resource exploration and probing the composition of the lithosphere and the deep Earth. Each chapter is written by leading experts in the field, which makes this book the definitive reference on integrated imaging of the Earth. Highlights of this volume include: Complete coverage of the theoretical foundations of integrated imaging approaches from inverse theory to different coupling methods and quantitative evaluation of the resulting models Comprehensive overview of current applications of integrated imaging including hydrological investigations, natural resource exploration, and imaging the deep Earth Detailed case studies of integrated approaches providing valuable guidance for both experienced users and researchers new to joint inversion. This volume will be a valuable resource for graduate students, academics, industry practitioners, and researchers who are interested in using or developing integrated imaging approaches.
The Early Earth: Accretion and Differentiation provides a multidisciplinary overview of the state of the art in understanding the formation and primordial evolution of the Earth. The fundamental structure of the Earth as we know it today was inherited from the initial conditions 4.56 billion years ago as a consequence of planetesimal accretion, large impacts among planetary objects, and planetary-scale differentiation. The evolution of the Earth from a molten ball of metal and magma to the tectonically active, dynamic, habitable planet that we know today is unique among the terrestrial planets, and understanding the earliest processes that led to Earth's current state is the essence of this volume. Important results have emerged from a wide range of disciplines including cosmochemistry, geochemistry, experimental petrology, experimental and theoretical mineral physics and geodynamics. The topics in this volume include: Condensation of primitive objects in the solar nebula, planetary building blocks Early and late accretion and planetary dynamic modeling Primordial differentiation, core formation, Magma Ocean evolution and crystallization This volume will be a valuable resource for graduate students, academics, and researchers in the fields of geophysics, geochemistry, cosmochemistry, and planetary science.
Sea Ice: Physics and Remote Sensing addresses experiences acquired mainly in Canada by researchers in the fields of ice physics and growth history in relation to its polycrystalline structure as well as ice parameters retrieval from remote sensing observations. The volume describes processes operating at the macro- and microscale (e.g., brine entrapment in sea ice, crystallographic texture of ice types, brine drainage mechanisms, etc.). The information is supported by high-quality photographs of ice thin-sections prepared from cores of different ice types, all obtained by leading experts during field experiments in the 1970s through the 1990s, using photographic cameras and scanning microscopy. In addition, this volume presents techniques to retrieve a suite of sea ice parameters (e.g. ice type, concentration, extent, thickness, surface temperature, surface deformation, etc.) from space-borne and airborne sensor data. The breadth of the material on this subject is designed to appeal to researchers and users of remote sensing data who want to develop quick familiarity with the capabilities of this technology or detailed knowledge about major techniques for retrieval of key ice parameters. Volume highlights include: Detailed crystallographic classification of natural sea ice, the key information from which information about ice growth conditions can be inferred. Many examples are presented with material to support qualitative and quantitative interpretation of the data. Methods developed for revealing microstructural characteristics of sea ice and performing forensic investigations. Data sets on radiative properties and satellite observations of sea ice, its snow cover, and surrounding open water. Methods of retrieval of ice surface features and geophysical parameters from remote sensing observations with a focus on critical issues such as the suitability of different sensors for different tasks and data synergism. Sea Ice: Physics and Remote Sensing is intended for a variety of sea ice audiences interested in different aspects of ice related to physics, geophysics, remote sensing, operational monitoring, mechanics, and cryospheric sciences.
The US Antarctic meteorite collection exists due to a cooperative program involving the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the Smithsonian Institution. Since 1976, meteorites have been collected by a NSF-funded field team, shipped for curation, characterization, distribution, and storage at NASA, and classified and stored for long term at the Smithsonian. It is the largest collection in the world with many significant samples including lunar, martian, many interesting chondrites and achondrites, and even several unusual one-of-a-kind meteorites from as yet unidentified parent bodies. Many Antarctic meteorites have helped to define new meteorite groups. No previous formal publication has covered the entire collection, and an overall summary of its impact and significant samples has been lacking. In addition, available statistics for the collection are out of date and need to be updated for the use of the community. 35 seasons of U.S. Antarctic Meteorites (1976-2011): A Pictorial Guide to the Collection is the first comprehensive volume that portrays the most updated key significant meteoritic samples from Antarctica. 35 seasons of U.S. Antarctic Meteorites presents a broad overview of the program and collection nearly four decades after its beginnings. The collection has been a consistent and reliable source of astromaterials for a large, diverse, and active scientific community. Volume highlights include: Overview of the history, field practices, curation approaches Special focus on specific meteorite types and the impact of the collection on understanding these groups (primitive chondrites, differentiated meteorites, lunar and martian meteorites) Role of Antarctic meteorites in influencing the determination of space and terrestrial exposure ages for meteorites Statistical summary of the collection by year, region, meteorite type, as well as a comparison to modern falls and hot desert finds The central portion of the book features 80 color plates each of which highlights more influential and interesting samples from the collection. 35 seasons of U.S. Antarctic Meteorites would be of special interest to a multidisciplinary audience in meteoritics, including advanced graduate students and geoscientists specializing in mineralogy, petrology, geochemistry, astronomy, near-earth object science, astrophysics, and astrobiology.
Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 200.
Trajectory-based ("Lagrangian") atmospheric transport and dispersion modeling has gained in popularity and sophistication over the previous several decades. It is common practice now for researchers around the world to apply Lagrangian models to a wide spectrum of issues.
Lagrangian Modeling of the Atmosphere is a comprehensive volume that includes sections on Lagrangian modeling theory, model applications, and tests against observations.
Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series.
Comprehensive coverage of trajectory-based atmospheric dispersion modeling Important overview of a widely used modeling tool Sections look at modeling theory, application of models, and tests against observations
All magnetized planets in our solar system (Mercury, Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) interact strongly with the solar wind and possess well developed magnetotails. It is not only the strongly magnetized planets that have magnetotails. Mars and Venus have no global intrinsic magnetic field, yet they possess induced magnetotails. Comets have magnetotails that are formed by the draping of the interplanetary magnetic field. In the case of planetary satellites (moons), the magnetotail refers to the wake region behind the satellite in the flow of either the solar wind or the magnetosphere of its parent planet. The largest magnetotail of all in our solar system is the heliotail, the "magnetotail" of the heliosphere. The variety of solar wind conditions, planetary rotation rates, ionospheric conductivity, and physical dimensions provide an outstanding opportunity to extend our understanding of the influence of these factors on magnetotail processes and structures. Volume highlights include: Discussion on why a magnetotail is a fundamental problem of magnetospheric physics Unique collection of tutorials on a large range of magnetotails in our solar system In-depth reviews comparing magnetotail processes at Earth with other magnetotail structures found throughout the heliosphere Collectively, Magnetotails in the Solar System brings together for the first time in one book a collection of tutorials and current developments addressing different types of magnetotails. As a result, this book should appeal to a broad community of space scientists, and it should also be of interest to astronomers who are looking at tail-like structures beyond our solar system.
Defending society against natural hazards is a high-stakes game of chance against nature, involving tough decisions. How should a developing nation allocate its budget between building schools for towns without ones or making existing schools earthquake-resistant? Does it make more sense to build levees to protect against floods, or to prevent development in the areas at risk? Would more lives be saved by making hospitals earthquake-resistant, or using the funds for patient care? What should scientists tell the public when - as occurred in L'Aquila, Italy and Mammoth Lakes, California - there is a real but small risk of an upcoming earthquake or volcanic eruption? Recent hurricanes, earthquakes, and tsunamis show that society often handles such choices poorly. Sometimes nature surprises us, when an earthquake, hurricane, or flood is bigger or has greater effects than expected from detailed hazard assessments. In other cases, nature outsmarts us, doing great damage despite expensive mitigation measures or causing us to divert limited resources to mitigate hazards that are overestimated. Much of the problem comes from the fact that formulating effective natural hazard policy involves combining science, economics, and risk analysis to analyze a problem and explore the costs and benefits of different options, in situations where the future is very uncertain. Because mitigation policies are typically chosen without such analysis, the results are often disappointing. This book uses general principles and case studies to explore how we can do better by taking an integrated view of natural hazards issues, rather than treating the relevant geoscience, engineering, economics, and policy formulation separately. Thought-provoking questions at the end of each chapter invite readers to confront the complex issues involved. Readership: Instructors, researchers, practitioners, and students interested in geoscience, engineering, economics, or policy issues relevant to natural hazards. Suitable for upper-level undergraduate or graduate courses. Additional resources can be found at: http://www.wiley.com/go/Stein/Playingagainstnature
Explores soil as a nexus for water, chemicals, and biologically coupled nutrient cycling Soil is a narrow but critically important zone on Earth's surface. It is the interface for water and carbon recycling from above and part of the cycling of sediment and rock from below. Hydrogeology, Chemical Weathering, and Soil Formation places chemical weathering and soil formation in its geological, climatological, biological and hydrological perspective. Volume highlights include: The evolution of soils over 3.25 billion years Basic processes contributing to soil formation How chemical weathering and soil formation relate to water and energy fluxes The role of pedogenesis in geomorphology Relationships between climate soils and biota Soils, aeolian deposits, and crusts as geologic dating tools Impacts of land-use change on soils The American Geophysical Union promotes discovery in Earth and space science for the benefit of humanity. Its publications disseminate scientific knowledge and provide resources for researchers, students, and professionals. Find out more about this book from this Q&A with the Editors
Seismoelectric coupling and its current and?potential future applications The seismoelectric method-the naturally-occurring?coupling of seismic waves to electromagnetic fields-can provide insight into important properties of porous media. With a variety of potential environmental and engineering uses, as well as larger scale?applications?such as earthquake detection and oil and gas exploration, it offers a number of advantages over conventional geophysical methods. Seismoelectric Exploration: Theory, Experiments, and Applications?explores the coupling between poroelastic and electromagnetic disturbances,?discussing?laboratory experiments, numerical?modeling techniques, recent theoretical developments, and field studies.? Volume highlights include: Physics of the seismoelectric effect at the microscale Governing equations describing coupled seismo-electromagnetic fields Examples of successful seismoelectric field experiments in different geological settings Current and potential applications of seismoelectric coupling Noise removal techniques for seismoelectric field measurements The American Geophysical Union promotes discovery in Earth and space science for the benefit of humanity. Its publications disseminate scientific knowledge and provide resources for researchers, students, and professionals.
This book is the first comprehensive and methodologically rigorous analysis of earthquake occurrence. Models based on the theory of the stochastic multidimensional point processes are employed to approximate the earthquake occurrence pattern and evaluate its parameters. The Author shows that most of these parameters have universal values. These results help explain the classical earthquake distributions: Omori's law and the Gutenberg-Richter relation. The Author derives a new negative-binomial distribution for earthquake numbers, instead of the Poisson distribution, and then determines a fractal correlation dimension for spatial distributions of earthquake hypocenters. The book also investigates the disorientation of earthquake focal mechanisms and shows that it follows the rotational Cauchy distribution. These statistical and mathematical advances make it possible to produce quantitative forecasts of earthquake occurrence. In these forecasts earthquake rate in time, space, and focal mechanism orientation is evaluated.
Society is increasingly affected by climate impacts, from prolonged water shortages to damaging coastal floods and wildfires. Scientists studying climate variations are eager to have their knowledge used in adaptive decision making. To achieve this, science and society must engage productively around complex management and policy challenges. For over 20 years, the science-society interface has been fertile ground for the Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISA) programs sponsored by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
Climate in Context describes what it takes to help scientists and stakeholders work together to "co-produce" climate science knowledge, policy, and action. This state-of-the art synthesis reflects on lessons learned by RISA programs, and provides a sober assessment of the challenges ahead. Through case studies from various US regions, this book provides lessons and guidance for organizations and individuals who want to work at the science-society interface on a range of climate challenges.
Deep Earth: Physics and Chemistry of the Lower Mantle and Core highlights recent advances and the latest views of the deep Earth from theoretical, experimental, and observational approaches and offers insight into future research directions on the deep Earth. In recent years, we have just reached a stage where we can perform measurements at the conditions of the center part of the Earth using state-of-the-art techniques, and many reports on the physical and chemical properties of the deep Earth have come out very recently. Novel theoretical models have been complementary to this breakthrough. These new inputs enable us to compare directly with results of precise geophysical and geochemical observations. This volume highlights the recent significant advancements in our understanding of the deep Earth that have occurred as a result, including contributions from mineral/rock physics, geophysics, and geochemistry that relate to the topics of: I. Thermal structure of the lower mantle and core II. Structure, anisotropy, and plasticity of deep Earth materials III. Physical properties of the deep interior IV. Chemistry and phase relations in the lower mantle and core V. Volatiles in the deep Earth The volume will be a valuable resource for researchers and students who study the Earth's interior. The topics of this volume are multidisciplinary, and therefore will be useful to students from a wide variety of fields in the Earth Sciences.
This textbook provides an overview of the origin and preservation of carbonate sedimentary rocks. The focus is on limestones and dolostones and the sediments from which they are derived. The approach is general and universal and draws heavily on fundamental discoveries, arresting interpretations, and keystone syntheses that have been developed over the last five decades. The book is designed as a teaching tool for upper level undergraduate classes, a fundamental reference for graduate and research students, and a scholarly source of information for practicing professionals whose expertise lies outside this specialty. The approach is rigorous, with every chapter being designed as a separate lecture on a specific topic that is encased within a larger scheme. The text is profusely illustrated with all colour diagrams and images of rocks, subsurface cores, thin sections, modern sediments, and underwater seascapes.
Additional resources for this book can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/james/carbonaterocks
Low-frequency waves in space plasmas have been studied for several decades, and our knowledge gain has been incremental with several paradigm-changing leaps forward. In our solar system, such waves occur in the ionospheres and magnetospheres of planets, and around our Moon. They occur in the solar wind, and more recently, they have been confirmed in the Sun's atmosphere as well. The goal of wave research is to understand their generation, their propagation, and their interaction with the surrounding plasma. Low-frequency Waves in Space Plasmas presents a concise and authoritative up-to-date look on where wave research stands: What have we learned in the last decade? What are unanswered questions? While in the past waves in different astrophysical plasmas have been largely treated in separate books, the unique feature of this monograph is that it covers waves in many plasma regions, including: Waves in geospace, including ionosphere and magnetosphere Waves in planetary magnetospheres Waves at the Moon Waves in the solar wind Waves in the solar atmosphere Because of the breadth of topics covered, this volume should appeal to a broad community of space scientists and students, and it should also be of interest to astronomers/astrophysicists who are studying space plasmas beyond our Solar System.
Deep-water (below wave base) processes, although generally hidden from view, shape the sedimentary record of more than 65% of the Earth's surface, including large parts of ancient mountain belts. This book aims to inform advanced-level undergraduate and postgraduate students, and professional Earth scientists with interests in physical oceanography and hydrocarbon exploration and production, about many of the important physical aspects of deep-water (mainly deep-marine) systems. The authors consider transport and deposition in the deep sea, trace-fossil assemblages, and facies stacking patterns as an archive of the underlying controls on deposit architecture (e.g., seismicity, climate change, autocyclicity). Topics include modern and ancient deep-water sedimentary environments, tectonic settings, and how basinal and extra-basinal processes generate the typical characteristics of basin slopes, submarine canyons, contourite mounds and drifts, submarine fans, basin floors and abyssal plains.
Hawaiian Volcanoes, From Source to Surface is the outcome of an AGU Chapman Conference held on the Island of Hawai`i in August 2012. As such, this monograph contains a diversity of research results that highlight the current understanding of how Hawaiian volcanoes work and point out fundamental questions requiring additional exploration. Volume highlights include: Studies that span a range of depths within Earth, from the deep mantle to the atmosphere Methods that cross the disciplines of geochemistry, geology, and geophysics to address issues of fundamental importance to Hawai`i's volcanoes Data for use in comparisons with other volcanoes, which can benefit from, and contribute to, a better understanding of Hawai`i Discussions of the current issues that need to be addressed for a better understanding of Hawaiian volcanism Hawaiian Volcanoes, From Source to Surface will be a valuable resource not only for researchers studying basaltic volcanism and scientists generally interested in volcanoes, but also students beginning their careers in geosciences. This volume will also be of great interest to igneous petrologists, geochemists, and geophysicists.
Comprehensive and up-to-date information on Earth's most dominant year-to-year climate variation The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the Pacific Ocean has major worldwide social and economic consequences through its global scale effects on atmospheric and oceanic circulation, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, and other natural systems. Ongoing climate change is projected to significantly alter ENSO's dynamics and impacts. El Niño Southern Oscillation in a Changing Climate presents the latest theories, models, and observations, and explores the challenges of forecasting ENSO as the climate continues to change. Volume highlights include: Historical background on ENSO and its societal consequences Review of key El Niño (ENSO warm phase) and La Niña (ENSO cold phase) characteristics Mathematical description of the underlying physical processes that generate ENSO variations Conceptual framework for understanding ENSO changes on decadal and longer time scales, including the response to greenhouse gas forcing ENSO impacts on extreme ocean, weather, and climate events, including tropical cyclones, and how ENSO affects fisheries and the global carbon cycle Advances in modeling, paleo-reconstructions, and operational climate forecasting Future projections of ENSO and its impacts Factors influencing ENSO events, such as inter-basin climate interactions and volcanic eruptions The American Geophysical Union promotes discovery in Earth and space science for the benefit of humanity. Its publications disseminate scientific knowledge and provide resources for researchers, students, and professionals. Find out more about this book from this Q&A with the editors.
Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Water Resources Monograph Series, Volume 19. What are the forms and processes characteristic of mountain rivers and how do we know them? Mountain Rivers Revisited, an expanded and updated version of the earlier volume Mountain Rivers, answers these questions and more. Here is the only comprehensive synthesis of current knowledge about mountain rivers available. While continuing to focus on physical process and form in mountain rivers, the text also addresses the influences of tectonics, climate, and land use on rivers, as well as water chemistry, hyporheic exchange, and riparian and aquatic ecology. With its numerous illustrations and references, hydrologists, geomorphologists, civil and environmental engineers, ecologists, resource planners, and their students will find this book an essential resource.
Ellen Wohl received her Ph.D. in geology in 1988 from the University of Arizona. Since then, she has worked primarily on mountain and bedrock rivers in diverse environments.
Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 191.
Rainfall: State of the Science offers the most up-to-date knowledge on the fundamental and practical aspects of rainfall. Each chapter, self-contained and written by prominent scientists in their respective fields, provides three forms of information: fundamental principles, detailed overview of current knowledge and description of existing methods, and emerging techniques and future research directions. The book discusses Rainfall microphysics: raindrop morphodynamics, interactions, size distribution, and evolution Rainfall measurement and estimation: ground-based direct measurement (disdrometer and rain gauge), weather radar rainfall estimation, polarimetric radar rainfall estimation, and satellite rainfall estimation Statistical analyses: intensity-duration-frequency curves, frequency analysis of extreme events, spatial analyses, simulation and disaggregation, ensemble approach for radar rainfall uncertainty, and uncertainty analysis of satellite rainfall products The book is tailored to be an indispensable reference for researchers, practitioners, and graduate students who study any aspect of rainfall or utilize rainfall information in various science and engineering disciplines.
Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 174.
Discovery of the perovskite to post-perovskite phase transition in MgSiO3, expected to occur for deep mantle conditions, was first announced in April 2004. This immediately stimulated numerous studies in experimental and theoretical mineral physics, seismology, and geodynamics evaluating the implications of a major lower mantle phase change. A resulting revolution in our understanding of the D? region in the lowermost mantle is well underway. This monograph presents the multidisciplinary advances to date ensuing from interpreting deep mantle seismological structures and dynamical processes in the context of the experimentally and theoretically determined properties of the post-perovskite phase change; the last silicate phase change likely to occur with increasing pressure in lowermost mantle rocks.
Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 179. This multidisciplinary monograph provides the first modern integrative summary focused on the most spectacular active tectonic systems in North America. Encompassing seismology, tectonics, geology, and geodesy, it includes papers that summarize the state of knowledge, including background material for those unfamiliar with the region; address global hypotheses using data from Alaska; and test important global hypotheses using data from this region. It is organized around four major themes: subduction and great earthquakes at the Aleutian Arc, the transition from strike slip to accretion and subduction of the Yakutat microplate, the Denali fault and related structures and their role in accommodating permanent deformation of the overriding plate, and regional integration and large-scale models and the use of data from Alaska to address important global questions and hypotheses. The book's publication near the beginning of the National Science Foundation's EarthScope project makes it especially timely because Alaska is perhaps the least understood area within the EarthScope footprint, and interest in the region can be expected to rise with time as more EarthScope data become available.
Pre-Earthquake signals are advanced warnings of a larger seismic event. A better understanding of these processes can help to predict the characteristics of the subsequent mainshock. Pre-Earthquake Processes: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Earthquake Prediction Studies presents the latest research on earthquake forecasting and prediction based on observations and physical modeling in China, Greece, Italy, France, Japan, Russia, Taiwan, and the United States. Volume highlights include: Describes the earthquake processes and the observed physical signals that precede them Explores the relationship between pre-earthquake activity and the characteristics of subsequent seismic events Encompasses physical, atmospheric, geochemical, and historical characteristics of pre-earthquakes Illustrates thermal infrared, seismo-ionospheric, and other satellite and ground-based pre-earthquake anomalies Applies these multidisciplinary data to earthquake forecasting and prediction Written for seismologists, geophysicists, geochemists, physical scientists, students and others, Pre-Earthquake Processes: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Earthquake Prediction Studies offers an essential resource for understanding the dynamics of pre-earthquake phenomena from an international and multidisciplinary perspective.
Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 182.
This book presents a study of the "eruptive crisis" that took place at the Stromboli volcano from December 2002 to July 2003. It features an integrative approach to the monitoring of eruptive activity, including lava flow output, explosive activity, flank instability, submarine and subaerial landslides, tsunami, paroxysmal explosive events, and mitigation strategies. The book comes with a DVD with spectacular photos and video of The landslide and the tsunami that hit the coast of the island; The 5 April 2003 paroxysmal event; The whole eruption showing the stages of effusive activity and growth of the lava flow field; Selected data useful for testing geochemical, petrological, seismological, thermal, and ground deformation models. This multidisciplinary and multimedia experience, unique for the amount, quality, and variety of data it covers, can be applied to other active volcanoes. Stromboli will appeal to solid Earth scientists and students working in seismology, geodynamics, geochemistry, and mineral physics, as well as nonspecialists with an interest in the inner workings of our planet and others.