The next century will see more than half of the worlds 6,000 languages become extinct, and most of these will disappear without being adequately recorded. Written by one of the leading figures in language documentation, this fascinating book explores what humanity stands to lose as a result.Explores the unique philosophy, knowledge, and cultural assumptions of languages, and their impact on our collective intellectual heritageQuestions why such linguistic diversity exists in the first place, and how can we can best respond to the challenge of recording and documenting these fragile oral traditions while they are still with usWritten by one of the leading figures in language documentation, and draws on a wealth of vivid examples from his own field experienceBrings conceptual issues vividly to life by weaving in portraits of individual last speakers and anecdotes about linguists and their discoveries
This volume presents a manual for a new method of studying implicit attitudes, the Test of Implicit Associations in Relationship Attitudes (TIARA). The main goal of this volume is to demonstrate how to study the implicit attitudes that people have toward others in their close relationships: friend, romantic partner, family member, etc. Since the inception of the concept and measures of implicit cognition, researchers have developed a number of indirect measures to assess implicit attitudes. These similar yet different methods aim to account for different variables for reliable and valid operational definitions of implicit attitudes. Given the progress made in the field of implicit measures, there is great potential for further development and extension of these types of assessments. Many of these methods (especially the Implicit Attitude Test) are only limited to assessing attitudes within the comparison of two bipolar concepts. Therefore, TIARA was developed to be a manual for a new method of studying implicit attitudes in relationships. As described in this volume, TIARA shows that if a person strongly believes that certain feelings can be attributed to a target relationship figure, the reaction time is shorter since they are the most confident in their answer. Beginning with a grounded explanation of the theory behind TIARA, the volume then proceeds to explain its methods and procedures, and how to code, score, and interpret the results of TIARA. Next, the volume reports on six psychometric studies, which provide substantial evidence that TIARA is a valid and reliable measure to study implicit attitudes in relationship research. The volume concludes by exploring practical applications of TIARA as well as its future directions and current limitations. The detailed description of the TIARA method provides a practical and handy tutorial for using the method in research and practice for social and personality psychologists, as well as practitioners.
Introductions to the theory of knowledge are plentiful, but none introduce students to the most recent debates that exercise contemporary philosophers. Ian Evans and Nicholas D. Smith aim to change that. Their book guides the reader through the standard theories of knowledge while simultaneously using these as a springboard to introduce current debates. Each chapter concludes with a "Current Trends" section pointing the reader to the best literature dominating current philosophical discussion. These include: the puzzle of reasonable disagreement; the so-called "problem of easy knowledge" the intellectual virtues; and new theories in the philosophy of language relating to knowledge. Chapters include discussions of skepticism, the truth condition, belief and acceptance, justification, internalism versus externalism, epistemic evaluation, and epistemic contextualism. Evans and Smith do not merely offer a review of existing theories and debates; they also offer a novel theory that takes seriously the claim that knowledge is not unique to humans. Surveying current scientific literature in animal ethology, they discover surprising sophistication and diversity in non-human cognition. In their final analysis the authors provide a unified account of knowledge that manages to respect and explain this diversity. They argue that animals know when they make appropriate use of the cognitive processes available to animals of that kind, in environments within which those processes are veridically well-adapted. Knowledge is a lively and accessible volume, ideal for undergraduate and post-graduate students. It is also set to spark debate among scholars for its novel approaches to traditional topics and its thoroughgoing commitment to naturalism.
This edited volume draws historians and anthropologists together to explore the contested worlds of epidemic corpses and their disposal. Why are burials so frequently at the center of disagreement, recrimination and protest during epidemics? Why are the human corpses produced in the course of infectious disease outbreaks seen as dangerous, not just to the living, but also to the continued existence of society and civilization? Examining cases from the Black Death to Ebola, contributors challenge the predominant idea that a single, universal framework of contagion can explain the political, social and cultural importance and impact of the epidemic corpse.
The chapters in this edited volume present multi-disciplinary case studies of prehistoric archaeological sites located on now-submerged portions of the continental shelf. Each chapter represents an extension of the known prehistoric record beyond the modern shoreline. Case studies represent central themes of landscape change, climate change and societal development, using new technologies for mapping, monitoring and managing these sites.
This authoritative and comprehensive handbook is the definitive work on the current state of the art of Biometric Presentation Attack Detection (PAD) - also known as Biometric Anti-Spoofing. Building on the success of the previous, pioneering edition, this thoroughly updated second edition has been considerably expanded to provide even greater coverage of PAD methods, spanning biometrics systems based on face, fingerprint, iris, voice, vein, and signature recognition. New material is also included on major PAD competitions, important databases for research, and on the impact of recent international legislation. Valuable insights are supplied by a selection of leading experts in the field, complete with results from reproducible research, supported by source code and further information available at an associated website.Topics and features: reviews the latest developments in PAD for fingerprint biometrics, covering optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology, and issues of interoperability; examines methods for PAD in iris recognition systems, and the application of stimulated pupillary light reflex for this purpose; discusses advancements in PAD methods for face recognition-based biometrics, such as research on 3D facial masks and remote photoplethysmography (rPPG); presents a survey of PAD for automatic speaker recognition (ASV), including the use of convolutional neural networks (CNNs), and an overview of relevant databases; describes the results yielded by key competitions on fingerprint liveness detection, iris liveness detection, and software-based face anti-spoofing; provides analyses of PAD in fingervein recognition, online handwritten signature verification, and in biometric technologies on mobile devicesincludes coverage of international standards, the E.U. PSDII and GDPR directives, and on different perspectives on presentation attack evaluation.This text/reference is essential reading for anyone involved in biometric identity verification, be they students, researchers, practitioners, engineers, or technology consultants. Those new to the field will also benefit from a number of introductory chapters, outlining the basics for the most important biometrics.
A new edition of the trusted guide on commonly used statistical distributions Fully updated to reflect the latest developments on the topic, Statistical Distributions, Fourth Edition continues to serve as an authoritative guide on the application of statistical methods to research across various disciplines. The book provides a concise presentation of popular statistical distributions along with the necessary knowledge for their successful use in data modeling and analysis. Following a basic introduction, forty popular distributions are outlined in individual chapters that are complete with related facts and formulas. Reflecting the latest changes and trends in statistical distribution theory, the Fourth Edition features: A new chapter on queuing formulas that discusses standard formulas that often arise from simple queuing systems Methods for extending independent modeling schemes to the dependent case, covering techniques for generating complex distributions from simple distributions New coverage of conditional probability, including conditional expectations and joint and marginal distributions Commonly used tables associated with the normal (Gaussian), student-t, F and chi-square distributions Additional reviewing methods for the estimation of unknown parameters, such as the method of percentiles, the method of moments, maximum likelihood inference, and Bayesian inference Statistical Distributions, Fourth Edition is an excellent supplement for upper-undergraduate and graduate level courses on the topic. It is also a valuable reference for researchers and practitioners in the fields of engineering, economics, operations research, and the social sciences who conduct statistical analyses.