This volume presents a manual for a new method of studying implicit attitudes, the Test of Implicit Associations in Relationship Attitudes (TIARA). The main goal of this volume is to demonstrate how to study the implicit attitudes that people have toward others in their close relationships: friend, romantic partner, family member, etc. Since the inception of the concept and measures of implicit cognition, researchers have developed a number of indirect measures to assess implicit attitudes. These similar yet different methods aim to account for different variables for reliable and valid operational definitions of implicit attitudes. Given the progress made in the field of implicit measures, there is great potential for further development and extension of these types of assessments. Many of these methods (especially the Implicit Attitude Test) are only limited to assessing attitudes within the comparison of two bipolar concepts. Therefore, TIARA was developed to be a manual for a new method of studying implicit attitudes in relationships. As described in this volume, TIARA shows that if a person strongly believes that certain feelings can be attributed to a target relationship figure, the reaction time is shorter since they are the most confident in their answer. Beginning with a grounded explanation of the theory behind TIARA, the volume then proceeds to explain its methods and procedures, and how to code, score, and interpret the results of TIARA. Next, the volume reports on six psychometric studies, which provide substantial evidence that TIARA is a valid and reliable measure to study implicit attitudes in relationship research. The volume concludes by exploring practical applications of TIARA as well as its future directions and current limitations. The detailed description of the TIARA method provides a practical and handy tutorial for using the method in research and practice for social and personality psychologists, as well as practitioners.
Introductions to the theory of knowledge are plentiful, but none introduce students to the most recent debates that exercise contemporary philosophers. Ian Evans and Nicholas D. Smith aim to change that. Their book guides the reader through the standard theories of knowledge while simultaneously using these as a springboard to introduce current debates. Each chapter concludes with a "Current Trends" section pointing the reader to the best literature dominating current philosophical discussion. These include: the puzzle of reasonable disagreement; the so-called "problem of easy knowledge"; the intellectual virtues; and new theories in the philosophy of language relating to knowledge.
Chapters include discussions of skepticism, the truth condition, belief and acceptance, justification, internalism versus externalism, epistemic evaluation, and epistemic contextualism. Evans and Smith do not merely offer a review of existing theories and debates; they also offer a novel theory that takes seriously the claim that knowledge is not unique to humans. Surveying current scientific literature in animal ethology, they discover surprising sophistication and diversity in non-human cognition. In their final analysis the authors provide a unified account of knowledge that manages to respect and explain this diversity. They argue that animals know when they make appropriate use of the cognitive processes available to animals of that kind, in environments within which those processes are veridically well-adapted.
Knowledge is a lively and accessible volume, ideal for undergraduate and post-graduate students. It is also set to spark debate among scholars for its novel approaches to traditional topics and its thoroughgoing commitment to naturalism.