This book provides statisticians and researchers with the statistical tools - equations, formulae and numerical tables - to design and plan clinical studies and carry out accurate, reliable and reproducible analysis of the data so obtained. There is no way around this as incorrect procedure in clinical studies means that the researcher's paper will not be accepted by a peer-reviewed journal. Planning and analysing clinical studies is a very complicated business and this book provides indispensible factual information.
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Randomised Clinical Trials: Design, Practice and Reporting provides a detailed overview of the methodology for conducting clinical trials, including developing protocols, data capture, randomisation, analysis and reporting. Assuming no prior background, this user-friendly resource describes the statistical, regulatory, and practical components required for conducting randomised clinical trials. Numerous examples and case studies from industry, academia, and the research literature help readers understand each stage of the clinical trial process. This second edition contains extensively revised material throughout, including new chapters covering designs for repeated measures, non-inferiority, cluster and stepped wedge trials. Other new chapters describe data and safety monitoring, biomarker studies, and feasibility studies. Updated and expanded sections discuss situations where multiple organs, different body locations or competing risks are involved, subgroup analysis, and multiple outcomes. Written by an author team with extensive experience in conducting clinical trials, this book: Provides comprehensive coverage of?randomised clinical trials, ranging from basic to advanced Features several new chapters, updated case studies and examples, and references to changes in regulations Explains basic randomised trials, including the parallel two-group controlled trial with a single outcome measure Covers paired trial designs and trials with more than two interventions Includes a chapter on miscellaneous topics such as adaptive designs, large simple trials, Bayesian methods for very small trials, alpha-spending functions and the predictive probability test Randomised Clinical Trials is essential reading for clinicians, nurses, data managers, and medical statisticians involved in clinical trials, and for health practitioners responsible for direct patient care in a clinical trial setting.
All new medicines and devices undergo early phase trials to assess, interpret and better understand their efficacy, tolerability and safety. An Introduction to Statistics in Early Phase Trials describes the practical design and analysis of these important early phase clinical trials and provides the crucial statistical basis for their interpretation. It clearly and concisely provides an overview of the most common types of trials undertaken in early phase clinical research and explains the different methodologies used. The impact of statistical technologies on clinical development and the statistical and methodological basis for making clinical and investment decisions are also explained. Conveys key ideas in a concise manner understandable by non-statisticians Explains how to optimise designs in a constrained or fixed resource setting Discusses decision making criteria at the end of Phase II trials Highlights practical day-to-day issues and reporting of early phase trials An Introduction to Statistics in Early Phase Trials is an essential guide for all researchers working in early phase clinical trial development, from clinical pharmacologists and pharmacokineticists through to clinical investigators and medical statisticians. It is also a valuable reference for teachers and students of pharmaceutical medicine learning about the design and analysis of clinical trials.
The same careful rigour imposed on the design of phase III randomised controlled trials is not always applied to medical research in other areas such as trials conducted at earlier stages of drug development. With the emphasis that is now placed on evidence-based medicine, such care and rigour will inevitably impact on these areas with increasing attention turned to the quality of design. This title describes what principles can be used to structure research effectively allowing for the required degree of accuracy. Written by two best selling authors, this book includes many examples from medical literature and will be of great value to all groups conducting studies at the interface of clinical and laboratory research.
Using examples and case studies from industry, academia and research literature, Randomized Clinical Trials provides a detailed overview of the key issues involved in designing, conducting, analysing and reporting randomized clinical trials. It examines the methodology for conducting Phase III clinical trials, developing the protocols, the practice for capturing, measuring, and analysing the resulting clinical data and their subsequent reporting. Randomized clinical trials are the principal method for determining the relative efficacy and safety of alternative treatments, interventions or medical devices. They are conducted by groups comprising one or more of pharmaceutical and allied health-care organisations, academic institutions, and charity supported research groups. In many cases such trials provide the key evidence necessary for the regulatory approval of a new product for future patient use. Randomized Clinical Trials provides comprehensive coverage of such trials, ranging from elementary to advanced level. Written by authors with considerable experience of clinical trials, Randomized Clinical Trials is an authoritative guide for clinicians, nurses, data managers and medical statisticians involved in clinical trials research and for health care professionals directly involved in patient care in a clinical trial context.
Now published in its Second Edition, the Textbook of Clinical Trials offers detailed coverage of trial methodology in diverse areas of medicine in a single comprehensive volume. Praise for the First Edition: "... very useful as an introduction to clinical research, or for those planning specific studies within therapeutic or disease areas." BRITISH JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Vol. 92, No. 2, February 2005 The book's main concept is to describe the impact of clinical trials on the practice of medicine. It separates the information by therapeutic area because the impact of clinical trials, the problems encountered, and the numbers of trials in existence vary tremendously from specialty to specialty. The sections provide a background to the disease area and general clinical trial methodology before concentrating on particular problems experienced in that area. Specific examples are used throughout to address these issues. The Textbook of Clinical Trials, Second Edition: Highlights the various ways clinical trials have influenced the practice of medicine in many therapeutic areas Describes the challenges posed by those conducting clinical trials over a range of medical specialities and allied fields Additional therapeutic areas are included in this Second Edition to fill gaps in the First Edition as the number and complexity of trials increases in this rapidly developing area Newly covered or updated in the Second Edition: general surgery, plastic surgery, aesthetic surgery, palliative care, primary care, anaesthesia and pain, transfusion, wound healing, maternal and perinatal health, early termination, organ transplants, ophthalmology, epilepsy, infectious disease, neuro-oncology, adrenal, thyroid and urological cancers, as well as a chapter on the Cochrane network An invaluable resource for pharmaceutical companies, the Textbook of Clinical Trials, Second Edition appeals to those working in contract research organizations, medical departments and in the area of public health and health science alike.
Regression Methods for Medical Research provides medical researchers with the skills they need to critically read and interpret research using more advanced statistical methods. The statistical requirements of interpreting and publishing in medical journals, together with rapid changes in science and technology, increasingly demands an understanding of more complex and sophisticated analytic procedures.
The text explains the application of statistical models to a wide variety of practical medical investigative studies and clinical trials. Regression methods are used to appropriately answer the key design questions posed and in so doing take due account of any effects of potentially influencing co-variables. It begins with a revision of basic statistical concepts, followed by a gentle introduction to the principles of statistical modelling. The various methods of modelling are covered in a non-technical manner so that the principles can be more easily applied in everyday practice. A chapter contrasting regression modelling with a regression tree approach is included. The emphasis is on the understanding and the application of concepts and methods. Data drawn from published studies are used to exemplify statistical concepts throughout. Regression Methods for Medical Research is especially designed for clinicians, public health and environmental health professionals, para-medical research professionals, scientists, laboratory-based researchers and students.
This highly popular introduction to confidence intervals has been thoroughly updated and expanded. It includes methods for using confidence intervals, with illustrative worked examples and extensive guidelines and checklists to help the novice.
The assessment of patient reported outcomes and health-related quality of life continue to be rapidly evolving areas of research and this new edition reflects the development within the field from an emerging subject to one that is an essential part of the assessment of clinical trials and other clinical studies.
The analysis and interpretation of quality-of-life assessments relies on a variety of psychometric and statistical methods which are explained in this book in a non-technical way. The result is a practical guide that covers a wide range of methods and emphasizes the use of simple techniques that are illustrated with numerous examples, with extensive chapters covering qualitative and quantitative methods and the impact of guidelines. The material in this new third edition reflects current teaching methods and content widened to address continuing developments in item response theory, computer adaptive testing, analyses with missing data, analysis of ordinal data, systematic reviews and meta-analysis.
This book is aimed at everyone involved in quality-of-life research and is applicable to medical and non-medical, statistical and non-statistical readers. It is of particular relevance for clinical and biomedical researchers within both the pharmaceutical industry and clinical practice.
An authoritative resource that offers the statistical tools and software needed to design and plan valid clinical studies Now in its fourth and extended edition, Sample Sizes for Clinical, Laboratory and Epidemiology Studiesincludes the sample size software (SSS) and formulae and numerical tables needed to design valid clinical studies. The text covers clinical as well as laboratory and epidemiology studies and contains the information needed to ensure a study will form a valid contribution to medical research. The authors, noted experts in the field, explain step by step and explore the wide range of considerations necessary to assist investigational teams when deriving an appropriate sample size for their when planned study. The book contains sets of sample size tables with companion explanations and clear worked out examples based on real data. In addition, the text offers bibliography and references sections that are designed to be helpful with guidance on the principles discussed. This revised fourth edition: Offers the only text available to include sample size software for use in designing and planning clinical studies Presents new and extended chapters with many additional and refreshed examples Includes clear explanations of the principles and methodologies involved with relevant practical examples Makes clear a complex but vital topic that is designed to ensure valid methodology and publishable results Contains guidance from an internationally recognised team of medical statistics experts Written for medical researchers from all specialities and medical statisticians, Sample Sizes for Clinical, Laboratory and EpidemiologyStudies offers an updated fourth edition of the important guide for designing and planning reliable and evidence based clinical studies.
The 5th edition of this popular introduction to statistics for the medical and health sciences has undergone a significant revision, with several new chapters added and examples refreshed throughout the book. Yet it retains its central philosophy to explain medical statistics with as little technical detail as possible, making it accessible to a wide audience. Helpful multi-choice exercises are included at the end of each chapter, with answers provided at the end of the book. Each analysis technique is carefully explained and the mathematics kept to minimum. Written in a style suitable for statisticians and clinicians alike, this edition features many real and original examples, taken from the authors' combined many years' experience of designing and analysing clinical trials and teaching statistics. Students of the health sciences, such as medicine, nursing, dentistry, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and radiography should find the book useful, with examples relevant to their disciplines. The aim of training courses in medical statistics pertinent to these areas is not to turn the students into medical statisticians but rather to help them interpret the published scientific literature and appreciate how to design studies and analyse data arising from their own projects. However, the reader who is about to design their own study and collect, analyse and report on their own data will benefit from a clearly written book on the subject which provides practical guidance to such issues. The practical guidance provided by this book will be of use to professionals working in and/or managing clinical trials, in academic, public health, government and industry settings, particularly medical statisticians, clinicians, trial co-ordinators. Its practical approach will appeal to applied statisticians and biomedical researchers, in particular those in the biopharmaceutical industry, medical and public health organisations.